Towards real-time photorealistic 3D holography with deep neural networks

PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH Imaging/ Image Processing
Published on:
Authors: Shi, Liang; Li, Beichen; Kim, Changil; Kellnhofer, Petr & Matusik, Wojciech
Abstract:
“The ability to present three-dimensional (3D) scenes with continuous depth sensation has a profound impact on virtual and augmented reality, human–computer interaction, education and training. Computer-generated holography (CGH) enables high-spatio-angular-resolution 3D projection via numerical simulation of diffraction and interference1. Yet, existing physically based methods fail to produce holograms with both per-pixel focal control and accurate occlusion. The computationally taxing Fresnel diffraction simulation further places an explicit trade-off between image quality and runtime, making dynamic holography impractical. Here we demonstrate a deep-learning-based CGH pipeline capable of synthesizing a photorealistic colour 3D hologram from a single RGB-depth image in real time. Our convolutional neural network (CNN) is extremely memory efficient (below 620 kilobytes) and runs at 60 hertz for a resolution of 1,920 × 1,080 pixels on a single consumer-grade graphics processing unit. Leveraging low-power on-device artificial intelligence acceleration chips, our CNN also runs interactively on mobile (iPhone 11 Pro at 1.1 hertz) and edge (Google Edge TPU at 2.0 hertz) devices, promising real-time performance in future-generation virtual and augmented-reality mobile headsets. We enable this pipeline by introducing a large-scale CGH dataset (MIT-CGH-4K) with 4,000 pairs of RGB-depth images and corresponding 3D holograms. Our CNN is trained with differentiable wave-based loss functions and physically approximates Fresnel diffraction. With an anti-aliasing phase-only encoding method, we experimentally demonstrate speckle-free, natural-looking, high-resolution 3D holograms. Our learning-based approach and the Fresnel hologram dataset will help to unlock the full potential of holography and enable applications in metasurface design, optical and acoustic tweezer-based microscopic manipulation, holographic microscopy and single-exposure volumetric 3D printing.”

Restricted Access

Publication: Nature
Issue/Year: Nature, Volume 591; Number 7849; Pages 234–239; 2021
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03152-0
Link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03152-0

Related Papers

PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Claudio Conci, Laura Sironi, Emanuela Jacchetti, Davide Panzeri, Donato Inverso, Rebeca Martínez Vázquez, Roberto Osellame, Maddalena Collini, Giulio Cerullo, Giuseppe Chirico, Manuela Teresa Raimondi

In vivo label-free tissue histology through a microstructured imaging window

Applications: Beam Shaping / Beam Steering,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Jiuru He, Pengwei Zhang, Jianpo Su, Junqiao Wang, Yongzhi Tian, Yongsheng Hu, and Fengying Ma

Edge enhancement in three-dimensional vortex imaging based on FINCH by Bessel-like spiral phase modulation

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing
LETO / LETO-3 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Wenxue Zhang, Yuhong Wan, Tianlong Man, Hongqiang Zhou

Computational incoherent edge enhancement imaging based on self-interference digital holography

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Dejin Zhang, Wei Sheng, Yaoyao Shi, and Youwen Liu

Imaging objects hidden inside the strongly scattering media based on bidirectional ghost imaging

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing,Turbid-/ Opaque Media /Multi Scattering
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors: Koray Kavaklı , Liang Shi , Hakan Urey , Wojciech Matusik , Kaan Akşit

Multi-color Holograms Improve Brightness in Holographic Displays

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors: Eric Markley , Nathan Matsuda , Florian Schiffers , Oliver Cossairt , Grace Kuo

Simultaneous Color Computer Generated Holography

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors: Grace Kuo , Florian Schiffers , Douglas Lanman , Oliver Cossairt , Nathan Matsuda

Multisource Holography

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Deep Learning / Neuronal Network,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
LETO / LETO-3 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors: Seung-Woo Nam , Youngjin Kim , Dongyeon Kim , Yoonchan Jeong

Depolarized Holography with Polarization-Multiplexing Metasurface

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH,Materials Processing / Optical Fabrication
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Zheyu Wu, Ran Gao, Sitong Zhou, Fei Wang, Zhipei Li, Huan Chang, Dong Guo, Xiangjun Xin, Qi Zhang, Feng Tian, Qiang Wu

Robust Super-Resolution Image Transmission Based on a Ring Core Fiber with Orbital Angular Momentum

Applications: Deep Learning / Neuronal Network,Higher Order Modes / Optical Vortex / OAM,Imaging/ Image Processing
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Chané Moodley and Andrew Forbes

All-digital quantum ghost imaging: tutorial

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Rui Li, Yuan Tao, Jiawen Li, Dongdong Jin, Chen Xin, Shengyun Ji, Chaowei Wang, Yachao Zhang, Yanlei Hu, Dong Wu, Li Zhang, Jiaru Chu

Rapid fabrication of reconfigurable helical microswimmers with environmentally adaptive locomotion

Applications: Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Qingwei Liu, Jing Chen, Bingsen Qiu, Yongtian Wang, and Juan Liu

DCPNet: a dual-channel parallel deep neural network for high quality computer-generated holography

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Complex Modulation,Deep Learning / Neuronal Network,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Yunping Qiu, Zisheng Wang, Zhe Weng, Zhi-Cheng Ren, Xi-Lin Wang, Jianping Ding, and Hui-Tian Wang

Single-shot measurement of the Jones matrix for anisotropic media using four-channel digital polarization holography

Applications: Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH,Polarization Generation
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Kumar, Rahul, Naveen K. Nishchal, and Ayman Alfalou

Improving the False Alarm Capability of the Extended Maximum Average Correlation Height Filter

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors: U. Ruiz and T. Cerda

Polarization sensitive security system

Applications: Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH,Polarization Generation
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Xinxing Xia, Weisen Wang, Frank Guan, Furong Yang, Xinghua Shui, Huadong Zheng, Yingjie Yu, and Yifan Peng

Exploring angular-steering illumination-based eyebox expansion for holographic displays

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Zhang, Yantong, Huiling Huang, Feibin Wu, Jun Han, Yi Yang, and Ruyi Li

Imaging through a Scattering Medium under Different Intensities of Ambient Light Interference

Applications: Deep Learning / Neuronal Network,Imaging/ Image Processing,Turbid-/ Opaque Media /Multi Scattering
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Huadong Zheng, Zhen Wang, Junchang Peng, Xinxing Xia, Yingjie Yu

Multiplane full-color phase-only holograms generation based on iterative algorithm with a modified amplitude constraint

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:León Schweickhardt , Dirk Stöbener und Andreas Fischer

Specklebasierte Charakterisierung anisotroper Oberflächen

Applications: Imaging/ Image Processing
GAEA Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Andreas Georgiou, Jia Jia, Charlie Hewitt, Changwon Jang, Jacob Hadnett-Hunter, Jinsoo Jeong, Joel Kollin

A holographic near-eye display with glass form factor and spectacle-free operation

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
LUNA Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Michael Flachhuber, Johannes Scheuchenpflug, Thomas Hilbert, Norbert Danz, Peter Schreiber, Leo M. Wilhelm, Markus Metz, Jean-Christope Olaya, Tobias Reusch

MaMeK: a wide-angle dynamic holographic projection system for human-vehicle communication

Applications: Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
GAEA Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Yingsi Qin, Wei-Yu Chen, Matthew O’Toole, Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

Split-Lohmann Multifocal Displays

Applications: AR/VR/MR / Holographic Display,Beam Shaping / Beam Steering,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Chen Xin, Zhongguo Ren, Leran Zhang, Liang Yang, Dawei Wang, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Jiaru Chu, Li Zhang & Dong Wu

Light-triggered multi-joint microactuator fabricated by two-in-one femtosecond laser writing

Applications: Beam Shaping / Beam Steering,Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH
PLUTO / PLUTO-2 Spatial Light Modulators
Authors:Qingyang Fu, Yaping Zhang, Bing Zhang, Wenlong Qin, Xianfeng Gu, and Ting-Chung Poon

Efficient rendering by parallelogram-approximation for full analytical polygon-based computer-generated holography using planar texture mapping

Applications: Digital-/ Computer Holography/ CGH