Dynamic measurement of the Jones matrix is crucial in investigating polarization light fields, which have wide applications in biophysics, chemistry, and mineralogy. However, acquiring the four elements of the Jones matrix instantly is difficult, hindering the characterization of random media and transient processes. In this study, we propose a single-shot measurement method of the Jones matrix for anisotropic media called “four-channel digital polarization holography” (FC-DPH). The FC-DPH system is created by a slightly off-axis superposition of reference light waves, which are modulated by a spatial light modulator (SLM), and signal light waves that pass through a Ronchi grating. The SLM enables flexible adjustment of the spatial carrier frequency, which can be adapted to different anisotropic media. The four elements of the Jones matrix can be obtained from the interferogram through the inverse Fourier transform. Optical experiments on anisotropic objects validate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method.