Recognizing fractional orbital angular momentum using feed forward neural network

Author(s):

Jing, Guoqing; Chen, Lizhen; Wang, Peipei; Xiong, Wenjie; Huang, Zebin; Liu, Junmin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan & Chen, Shuqing

Abstract:

“Fractional vortex beam (FVB) possessing helical phase can be applied in the shift-keying communication due to its fractional orbital angular momentum (FOAM) mode, which theoretically allows an infinite increase of the transmitted capacity. However, the discontinuity of spiral phase makes FVB more likely to be disturbed in turbulence environment, and the precise measurement of distorted FOAM modes is crucial for practical FOAM-based communication application. Here, we proposed a FOAM mode recognition method with feedforward neural network (FNN). Employing the diffraction preprocessing of a two-dimensional fork grating, the original optical features of FVBs can be extended along the far-field diffraction order, endowing FNN more feature information and saving calculation time, and enlarging the detection range to conjugate FOAM modes. The simulation results show that the 9-layer FNN can identify FOAM mode with interval of 0.1 with an accuracy of 99.1% under the turbulences of

Cn2=1×1014m2/3

and Δz=10m. Furthermore, we experimentally constructed a 102-ary FOAM shift-keying communication link to transmit gray image, and the signals are successfully demodulated by the FNN model with the pixel-error-rate of 0.07160. It is anticipated that the proposed FNN-based FOAM recognition method will break the limitation of precision measurement under turbulence environment in practical FOAM applications.”

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Publication: Results in Physics
Issue/Year: Results in Physics, Volume 28; Pages 104619; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104619

Experimental investigation in Airy transform of Gaussian beams with optical vortex

Author(s):

Xu, Yi-Qing; Li, Xia; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Yi-Min; Wang, Fei & Zhou, Guo-Quan

Abstract:

“The Airy transform was first introduced for a Gaussian beam, and the output beam is an Airy beam. When the Gaussian beam is extended to the Gaussian beam with optical vortex, what kind of output beam will be achieved by executing the Airy transformation. Therefore, the experimental research on Airy transformation of a Gaussian beam with optical vortex is carried out, including the generation of Gaussian beams with optical vortex, the realization of Airy transform, and the related measurements of the output beams. The phase pattern is indirect measured and is recovered from the intensity pattern which is the interference result of a plane wave and the output beam. The experimental measurement results of the light intensity and the phase patterns of transformed Gaussian beams with the optical vortex are consistent with the corresponding numerical simulation results.

Based on the first and the second moments of light intensity, the centroid and the beam size are measured. According to the hyperbolic law of the beam width along the axial propagation distance, the propagation factor of the output beam is measured. The influences of the Airy coefficients and the topological charge on the intensity pattern, the phase pattern, the centroid, the beam size, and the propagation factor of transformed Gaussian beams with optical vortex are experimentally investigated, respectively. The intensity pattern, the phase pattern, the centroid, the beam size, and the propagation factor of a transformed Gaussian beam with optical vortex are also compared with those of the corresponding transformed Gaussian vortex beam. This experiment fully proves the effect of the optical vortex on the Airy transformation of Gaussian beams. Meanwhile, this study offers an optional method to generate Airy-like beams from Gaussian beams with optical vortex, which is beneficial to the applications of Gaussian beams with optical vortex.”

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Publication: Results in Physics
Issue/Year: Results in Physics, Volume 28; Pages 104588; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104588

Representation of total angular momentum states of beams through a four-parameter notation

Author(s):

Fu, Shiyao; Hai, Lan; Song, Rui; Gao, Chunqing & Zhang, Xiangdong

Abstract:

“It has been confirmed beams carrying total angular momentums (TAMs) that consist of spin angular momentums (SAMs) and orbital angular momentums (OAMs) are widely used in classical and quantum optics. Here we propose and demonstrate a new kind of representation consisting of four real numbers to describe the TAM states of arbitrary beams. It is shown that any homogeneous polarization, scalar vortices and complex vectorial vortex field, all of which result from the TAMs of photons, can be well represented conveniently using our proposed four-parameter representation. Furthermore, the proposed representation can also reveal the internal change of TAMs as the conversion between SAMs and OAMs. The salient properties of the proposed representation is to give a universal form of TAMs associated with complicated polarizations and more exotic vectorial vortex beams, which offer an important basis for the future applications”

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Publication: New Journal of Physics
Issue/Year: New Journal of Physics, Volume 23; Number 8; Pages 083015; 2021
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/ac1695

Singular Warped Beams Controlled by Tangent Phase Modulation

Author(s):

Funes, Gustavo; Peters, Eduardo & Anguita, Jaime

Abstract:

“We analyze the effect of spatial phase modulation using non-linear functions applied to singular warped beams to control their topological states and intensity distribution. Such beams are candidates for optical trapping and particle manipulation for their controllable pattern of intensities and singularities. We first simulate several kinds of warped beams to analyze their intensity profiles and propagation characteristics. Secondly, we experimentally validate the simulations and investigate the far-field profiles. By calculating the intensity gradients, we describe how these beams are qualified candidates for optical manipulation and trapping.”

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Publication: Photonics
Issue/Year: Photonics, Volume 8; Number 8; Pages 343; 2021
DOI: 10.3390/photonics8080343

Non-spreading Bessel spatiotemporal optical vortices

Author(s):

Cao, Qian; Chen, Jian; Lu, Keyin; Wan, Chenhao; Chong, Andy & Zhan, Qiwen

Abstract:

“Non-spreading nature of Bessel spatiotemporal wavepackets is theoretically and experimentally investigated and orders of magnitude improvement in the spatiotemporal spreading has been demonstrated. The spatiotemporal confinement provided by the Bessel spatiotemporal wavepacket is further exploited to transport transverse orbital angular momentum through embedding spatiotemporal optical vortex into the Bessel spatiotemporal wavepacket, constructing a new type of wavepacket: Bessel spatiotemporal optical vortex. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that spatiotemporal vortex structure can be well maintained and confined through much longer propagation. High order spatiotemporal optical vortices can also be better confined in the spatiotemporal domain and prevented from further breaking up, overcoming a potential major obstacle for future applications of spatiotemporal vortex.”

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Publication: Science Bulletin
Issue/Year: Science Bulletin, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.scib.2021.07.031

Toward simple, generalizable neural networks with universal training for low-SWaP hybrid vision

Author(s):

Muminov, Baurzhan; Perry, Altai; Hyder, Rakib; Asif, M. Salman & Vuong, Luat T.

Abstract:

“Speed, generalizability, and robustness are fundamental issues for building lightweight computational cameras. Here we demonstrate generalizable image reconstruction with the simplest of hybrid machine vision systems: linear optical preprocessors combined with no-hidden-layer, “small-brain” neural networks. Surprisingly, such simple neural networks are capable of learning the image reconstruction from a range of coded diffraction patterns using two masks. We investigate the possibility of generalized or “universal training” with these small brains. Neural networks trained with sinusoidal or random patterns uniformly distribute errors around a reconstructed image, whereas models trained with a combination of sharp and curved shapes (the phase pattern of optical vortices) reconstruct edges more boldly. We illustrate variable convergence of these simple neural networks and relate learnability of an image to its singular value decomposition entropy of the image. We also provide heuristic experimental results. With thresholding, we achieve robust reconstruction of various disjoint datasets. Our work is favorable for future real-time low size, weight, and power hybrid vision: we reconstruct images on a 15 W laptop CPU with 15,000 frames per second: faster by a factor of 3 than previously reported results and 3 orders of magnitude faster than convolutional neural networks.”

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Publication: Photonics Research
Issue/Year: Photonics Research, Volume 9; Number 7; Pages B253; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/prj.416614

Reconfigurable generation of double-ring perfect vortex beam

Author(s):

Du, Yafei; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Wang, Yuncai & Qin, Yuwen

Abstract:

“Perfect vortex beam (PVB), whose ring radius is independent of its topological charge, play an important role in optical trapping and optical communication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the reconfigurable double-ring PVB (DR-PVB) generation with independent manipulations of the amplitude, the radius, the width, and the topological charge for each ring. Based on complex amplitude modulation (CAM) with a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM), we successfully verify the proposed DR-PVB generation scheme via the computer-generated hologram. Furthermore, we carry out a quantitative characterization for the generated DR-PVB, in terms of both the generation quality and the generation efficiency. The correlation coefficients of various reconfigurable DR-PVBs are above 0.8, together with the highest generation efficiency of 44%. We believe that, the proposed generation scheme of reconfigurable DR-PVB is desired for applications in both optical tweezers and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 11; Pages 17353; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.424664

Twin curvilinear vortex beams

Author(s):

Wang, Zhuang; Yuan, Zheng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Wenxiang; Liang, Chunjuan; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Ding, Jianping & Wang, Hui-Tian

Abstract:

“We report on a novel curvilinear optical vortex beam named twin curvilinear vortex beams (TCVBs) with intensity and phase distribution along a pair of two- or three-dimensional curves, both of which share the same shape and the same topological charge. The TCVBs also possess the character of perfect optical vortex, namely having a size independent of topological charge. We theoretically demonstrate that a TCVB rather than a single-curve vortex beam can be created by the Fourier transform of a cylindrically polarized beam. The behavior of TCVBs generated through our method is investigated by simulation and experiment, including interference experiments for identifying the vortex property of the TCVBs. The TCVBs may find applications in optical tweezers, such as trapping low refractive index particles in the dark region between two curves and driving them moving along the curvilinear trajectory.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 9; Pages 14112; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.423803

Generation of Complex Transverse Energy Flow Distributions with Autofocusing Optical Vortex Beams

Author(s):

Khonina, Svetlana N.; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Ustinov, Andrey V. & Butt, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

“Optical vortex (OV) beams are widely used for the generation of light fields with transverse energy flow inducing orbital motion of the nano- and microparticles in the transverse plane. Here, we present some new modifications of OV beams with autofocusing properties for shaping complex transverse energy flow distributions varying in space. The angular component of the complex amplitude of these beams is defined by the superpositions of OV beams with different topological charges. The proposed approach provides a convenient method to control the three-dimensional structure of the generated autofocusing OV beams. The control of the transverse distribution of an autofocusing beam provides a wide variety of generated fields with both rotating and periodic properties, which can be used in the field of laser manipulation and laser material processing. Thus, the obtained numerical results predict different types of motion of the trapped particles for the designed OV autofocusing beams. The experimental results agree with modeling results and demonstrate the principal possibility to shape such laser beams using spatial light modulators.”

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Publication: Micromachines
Issue/Year: Micromachines, Volume 12; Number 3; Pages 297; 2021
DOI: 10.3390/mi12030297

Tailored spectral rotation of vortex pulses by non-uniform spiral phase gratings

Author(s):

Liebmann, Max; Treffer, Alexander; Bock, Martin; Jurke, Mathias; Wallrabe, Ulrike & Grunwald, Rüdiger

Abstract:

“Previously we studied the spectral Gouy rotation as a specific rotational phenomenon of conical polychromatic light fields shaped by spiral gratings. The rotation of spectral anomalies around singularities results from accumulated spectrally dependent Gouy phase shift. We proposed to apply radially chirped spiral structures to obtain an axial modulation of the rotational characteristics. Here we present related experimental results with non-uniform spiral gratings which were programmed into a 10-Megapixel, phase-only, liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM). A propagation-dependent variation of the Gouy rotation was indicated. More complex non-uniform geometries are considered.”

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Publication: SPIE Proceedings, Complex Light and Optical Forces XV;
Issue/Year: Proc. SPIE 11701, Complex Light and Optical Forces XV, 117010V, 2021
DOI: 10.1117/12.2578503
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