Control of trion-to-exciton conversion in monolayer WS2 by orbital angular momentum of light

Author(s):

Kesarwani, Rahul; Simbulan, Kristan Bryan; Huang, Teng-De; Chiang, Yu-Fan; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Lan, Yann-Wen & Lu, Ting-Hua

Abstract:

“Controlling the density of exciton and trion quasiparticles in monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials at room temperature by nondestructive techniques is highly desired for the development of future optoelectronic devices. Here, the effects of different orbital angular momentum (OAM) lights on monolayer tungsten disulfide at both room temperature and low temperatures are investigated, which reveal simultaneously enhanced exciton intensity and suppressed trion intensity in the photoluminescence spectra with increasing topological charge of the OAM light. In addition, the trion-to-exciton conversion efficiency is found to increase rapidly with the OAM light at low laser power and decrease with increasing power. Moreover, the trion binding energy and the concentration of unbound electrons are estimated, which shed light on how these quantities depend on OAM. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the experimental data. These findings pave a way toward manipulating the exciton emission in 2D materials with OAM light for optoelectronic applications.”

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Publication: Science Advances
Issue/Year: Science Advances, Volume 8; Number 13; 2022
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm0100

Singularities splitting phenomenon for the superposition of hybrid orders structured lights and the corresponding interference discrimination method

Author(s):

Mao, Baiwei; Liu, Yange; Chang, Wenzhe; Chen, Liang; Feng, Mao; Guo, Huiyi; He, Jiangyong & Wang, Zhi

Abstract:

“It is the basic characteristic of pure vortex light

that there is a phase singularity at the origin. Such a sin-

gularity may be multiple degenerate, which determines the

order of vortex light. Singularities splitting phenomenon

means that singularities no longer concentrate at the origin

but distribute around the space, usually occurring in

impure vortex light. In this paper, we demonstrate the

singularities splitting phenomenon and propose an anal-

ysis method, based on which one may rapidly estimate the

modal components of impure vortex light. As two common

singularity discrimination methods, the spiral and fork

wire interference patterns are compared in distinguishing

splitting singularities. The most widely used spiral inter-

ference pattern is revealed to be the worst form because of

the low resolution. Instead, the fork wire interference

pattern is with higher and easily adjusted resolution. 1‰

impurity is still able to be distinguished through fork wire

interference patterns in the experiment.”

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Publication: Nanophotonics
Issue/Year: Nanophotonics, Volume 0; Number 0; 2022
DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2021-0814

Precise position and angular control of optical trapping and manipulation via a single vortex-pair beam

Author(s):

Jisen Wen, Binjie Gao, Guiyuan Zhu, DadongLiu, Li-GangWang

Abstract:

“Optical trapping and manipulation using structured laser beams now attract increasing attention in many areas including biology, atomic science, and nanofabrication. Here we propose and demonstrate experimentally the use of a single vortex-pair beam in two-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation. Using the focal properties of such vortex-pair beams, we successfully manipulate two spherical microparticles simultaneously, and obtain the precise position-control on the microparticles by adjusting the off-axis parameter of the vortex-pair beam. Furthermore, we also realize the high-precision angular-controllable rotation of cylindrical microrods by rotating the initial phase structure of such vortex-pair beams, which is like an optical wrench due to two focused bright spots at the focal plane of objective lens. Our experimental result provides an alternative manipulation of microparticles and may have potential applications in biological area, and optically driven micromachines or motors.”

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Publication: Optics and Lasers in Engineering
Issue/Year: Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Volume 148, 106773 (2022)
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2021.106773

Electro-Optic Modulation of Higher-Order Poincar’e Beam Based on Nonlinear Optical Crystal

Author(s):

Han, Lu; Li, Zhan; Chen, Chao; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Junyong & Liu, Dean

Abstract:

“Vector beams (VBs) have spatially inhomogeneous polarization states distribution and have been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we proposed a method to modulate polarization states of higher-order Poincaré (HOP) beams and designed a system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which polarization state (include azimuth and ellipticity) of generated HOP beams were modulated by linear electro-optic (EO) effect of nonlinear optical crystals. Using this method, the polarization state of generated HOP beams could be controlled by voltage signal applied on EO crystals, which makes the process of the polarization state change with no optical element moving and mechanical vibrations. Besides, due to the flexibility of the voltage signal, the polarization state could be switched directly and immediately.”

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Publication: Photonics
Issue/Year: Photonics, Volume 9; Number 1; Pages 41; 2022
DOI: 10.3390/photonics9010041

Vector optical field with the polarization varying along an arbitrary circular trajectory on the Poincar’e sphere

Author(s):

Lü, Jia-Qi; Wang, Wen-Yue; Cheng, Tian-Yu; Lu, Zhi-Wei & Liu, Shuo

Abstract:

“As an inherent feature of vector optical field, the spatial distribution of polarization brings additional degrees of freedom to engineer the optical field and control the interaction between light and matters. Here we focus on the variation of polarization in single vector optical field, which can be defined by the trajectory on the Poincaré sphere. Based on the amplitude-phase-polarization joint modulation method we propose, vector optical field, whose variation of polarization follows arbitrary circular trajectory on the Poincaré sphere, can be generated. Moreover, the tightly focusing behaviors of the vector optical fields with the polarization varying along parallel circles on the Poincaré sphere are compared. Relations between the circular trajectory and the central intensity of the hollow focal field are concluded.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 24; Pages 39718; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.441809

Realization and measurement of Airy transform of Gaussian vortex beams

Author(s):

Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Fei; Li, Xia; Chen, Ruipin; Zhou, Yimin & Zhou, Guoquan

Abstract:

“Airy transformation is a useful technique to modulate amplitude and phase of a light beam, which has important applications in particle trapping/manipulation, optical communications and optical imaging. However, most of the studies only focused on the Airy transform of Gaussian beams and other vortex-free beams in the past. In this paper, the Airy transform of Gaussian vortex beams, which are the most common vortex beams, is investigated. A universal analytical expression of the Gaussian vortex beams with topological charge (TC) m passing through an Airy transform optical system is derived. We carry out a detailed study on the output beams’ characteristics after the Airy transform of the Gaussian vortex beams with m = ± 1 and ± 2. The analytical expressions for the centroid, the beam spot size, the divergence angle and the beam propagation factor of the output beams are derived. The effects of the Airy control parameters and the TC on the normalized intensity distribution, the phase distribution, the centroid, the beam spot size and the beam propagation factor of the output beams are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results agree reasonably well with the theoretical results which illustrate the properties of Airy transform of the Gaussian vortex beams.”

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Publication: Optics and Laser Technology
Issue/Year: Optics and Laser Technology, Volume 143; Pages 107334; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2021.107334

Axial resolution enhancement for planar Airy beam light-sheet microscopy via the complementary beam subtraction method

Author(s):

Liu, Chao; Yu, Xianghua; Bai, Chen; Li, Xing; Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Dan, Dan; Li, Runze; Gu, Shuangyu & Yao, Baoli

Abstract:

“Airy beam light-sheet illumination can extend the field of view (FOV) of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy due to the unique propagation properties of non-diffraction and self-acceleration. However, the side lobes create undesirable out-of-focus background, leading to poor axial resolution and low image contrast. Here, we propose an Airy complementary beam subtraction (ACBS) method to improve the axial resolution while keeping the extended FOV. By scanning the optimized designed complementary beam that has two main lobes (TML), the generated complementary light-sheet has almost identical intensity distribution to that of the planar Airy light-sheet except for the central lobe. Subtraction of the two images acquired by double exposure respectively using the planar Airy light-sheet and the planar TML light-sheet can effectively suppress the influence of the out-of-focus background. The axial resolution improves from ∼4µm to 1.2 µm. The imaging performance was demonstrated by imaging specimens of aspergillus conidiophores and GFP labeled mouse brain section. The results show that the ACBS method enables the Airy beam light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to obtain better imaging quality.”

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Publication: Applied Optics
Issue/Year: Applied Optics, Volume 60; Number 32; Pages 10239; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/ao.441070

Synthetic helical dichroism for six-dimensional optical orbital angular momentum multiplexing

Author(s):

Ouyang, Xu; Xu, Yi; Xian, Mincong; Feng, Ziwei; Zhu, Linwei; Cao, Yaoyu; Lan, Sheng; Guan, Bai-Ou; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Gu, Min & Li, Xiangping

Abstract:

“Optical multiplexing by creating orthogonal data channels has offered an unparalleled approach for information encoding with substantially improved density and security. Despite the fact that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light involves physical orthogonal division, the lack of explicit OAM sensitivity at the nanoscale prevents this feature from realizing nanophotonic information encoding. Here we demonstrate the viability of nanoscale information multiplexing utilizing the OAM of light. This is achieved by discovering OAM-dependent polarization ellipses in non-paraxial focusing conditions and hence synthetic helical dichroism resulting from the distinct absorption of achiral nanoparticles to the different order of OAM beams. Leveraging this mechanism, the application of subwavelength-scale focused OAM beams to self-assemble plasmonic nanoaggregates further enables six-dimensional optical information multiplexing, in conjunction with wavelength, polarization and three spatial dimensions. Our results suggest the possibility of multiplexing OAM division as an unbounded degree of freedom for nanophotonic information encoding, security imprinting and beyond.”

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Publication: Nature Photonics
Issue/Year: Nature Photonics, 2021
DOI: 10.1038/s41566-021-00880-1

Recognizing fractional orbital angular momentum using feed forward neural network

Author(s):

Jing, Guoqing; Chen, Lizhen; Wang, Peipei; Xiong, Wenjie; Huang, Zebin; Liu, Junmin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan & Chen, Shuqing

Abstract:

“Fractional vortex beam (FVB) possessing helical phase can be applied in the shift-keying communication due to its fractional orbital angular momentum (FOAM) mode, which theoretically allows an infinite increase of the transmitted capacity. However, the discontinuity of spiral phase makes FVB more likely to be disturbed in turbulence environment, and the precise measurement of distorted FOAM modes is crucial for practical FOAM-based communication application. Here, we proposed a FOAM mode recognition method with feedforward neural network (FNN). Employing the diffraction preprocessing of a two-dimensional fork grating, the original optical features of FVBs can be extended along the far-field diffraction order, endowing FNN more feature information and saving calculation time, and enlarging the detection range to conjugate FOAM modes. The simulation results show that the 9-layer FNN can identify FOAM mode with interval of 0.1 with an accuracy of 99.1% under the turbulences of \(C^n_2=1×10^{–14}m^{–2/3}\) and Δz=10m. Furthermore, we experimentally constructed a 102-ary FOAM shift-keying communication link to transmit gray image, and the signals are successfully demodulated by the FNN model with the pixel-error-rate of 0.07160. It is anticipated that the proposed FNN-based FOAM recognition method will break the limitation of precision measurement under turbulence environment in practical FOAM applications.”

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Publication: Results in Physics
Issue/Year: Results in Physics, Volume 28; Pages 104619; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104619

Experimental investigation in Airy transform of Gaussian beams with optical vortex

Author(s):

Xu, Yi-Qing; Li, Xia; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Yi-Min; Wang, Fei & Zhou, Guo-Quan

Abstract:

“The Airy transform was first introduced for a Gaussian beam, and the output beam is an Airy beam. When the Gaussian beam is extended to the Gaussian beam with optical vortex, what kind of output beam will be achieved by executing the Airy transformation. Therefore, the experimental research on Airy transformation of a Gaussian beam with optical vortex is carried out, including the generation of Gaussian beams with optical vortex, the realization of Airy transform, and the related measurements of the output beams. The phase pattern is indirect measured and is recovered from the intensity pattern which is the interference result of a plane wave and the output beam. The experimental measurement results of the light intensity and the phase patterns of transformed Gaussian beams with the optical vortex are consistent with the corresponding numerical simulation results.

Based on the first and the second moments of light intensity, the centroid and the beam size are measured. According to the hyperbolic law of the beam width along the axial propagation distance, the propagation factor of the output beam is measured. The influences of the Airy coefficients and the topological charge on the intensity pattern, the phase pattern, the centroid, the beam size, and the propagation factor of transformed Gaussian beams with optical vortex are experimentally investigated, respectively. The intensity pattern, the phase pattern, the centroid, the beam size, and the propagation factor of a transformed Gaussian beam with optical vortex are also compared with those of the corresponding transformed Gaussian vortex beam. This experiment fully proves the effect of the optical vortex on the Airy transformation of Gaussian beams. Meanwhile, this study offers an optional method to generate Airy-like beams from Gaussian beams with optical vortex, which is beneficial to the applications of Gaussian beams with optical vortex.”

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Publication: Results in Physics
Issue/Year: Results in Physics, Volume 28; Pages 104588; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104588
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