Varifocal diffractive lenses for multi-depth microscope imaging

Author(s):

Reda, Francesco; Salvatore, Marcella; Borbone, Fabio; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Ambrosio, Antonio & Oscurato, Stefano Luigi

Abstract:

“Flat optical elements enable the realization of ultra-thin devices able to either reproduce or overcome the functionalities of standard bulky components. The fabrication of these elements involves the structuration of material surfaces on the light wavelength scale, whose geometry has to be carefully designed to achieve the desired optical functionality. In addition to the limits imposed by lithographic design-performance compromises, their optical behavior cannot be accurately tuned afterward, making them difficult to integrate in dynamic optical systems. Here we show the realization of fully reconfigurable flat varifocal diffractive lens, which can be in-place realized, erased and reshaped directly on the surface of an azopolymer film by an all-optical holographic process. Integrating the lens in the same optical system used as standard refractive microscope, results in a hybrid microscope capable of multi-depth object imaging. Our approach demonstrates that reshapable flat optics can be a valid choice to integrate, or even substitute, modern optical systems for advanced functionalities.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 30; Number 8; Pages 12695; 2022
DOI: 10.1364/oe.455520

Polymer Optical Waveguide Sensor Based on Fe-Amino-Triazole Complex Molecular Switches

Author(s):

Khan, Muhammad Shaukat; Farooq, Hunain; Wittmund, Christopher; Klimke, Stephen; Lachmayer, Roland; Renz, Franz & Roth, Bernhard

Abstract:

“We report on a polymer-waveguide-based temperature sensing system relying on switchable molecular complexes. The polymer waveguide cladding is fabricated using a maskless lithographic optical system and replicated onto polymer material (i.e., PMMA) using a hot embossing device. An iron-amino-triazole molecular complex material (i.e., [Fe(Htrz)2.85(NH2-trz)0.15](ClO4)2) is used to sense changes in ambient temperature. For this purpose, the core of the waveguide is filled with a mixture of core material (NOA68), and the molecular complex using doctor blading and UV curing is applied for solidification. The absorption spectrum of the molecular complex in the UV/VIS light range features two prominent absorption bands in the low-spin state. As temperature approaches room temperature, a spin-crossover transition occurs, and the molecular complex changes its color (i.e. spectral properties) from violet-pink to white. The measurement of the optical power transmitted through the waveguide as a function of temperature exhibits a memory effect with a hysteresis width of approx. 12 °C and sensitivity of 0.08 mW/°C. This enables optical rather than electronic temperature detection in environments where electromagnetic interference might influence the measurements”

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Publication: Polymers
Issue/Year: Polymers, Volume 13; Number 2; Pages 195; 2021
DOI: 10.3390/polym13020195

Maskless lithography for versatile and low cost fabrication of polymer based micro optical structures

Author(s):

Muhammad Shaukat Khan, Roland lachmayer, and Bernhard Roth

Abstract:

“For applications in optical communication, sensing or information projection in automotive lighting, polymer based optical devices are of keen interest. Optical structures such as waveguides and gratings are basic blocks for these devices. We report on a simple, versatile, and yet low-cost fabrication method suited for both binary and multilevel diffractive microstructures as well as multimode optical waveguides in polymers. The fabrication of the diffractive structures, i.e. gratings, with two and multiple levels, is achieved by using a maskless optical lithography system employing a spatial light modulator. With the same system, waveguide cladding structures are realized by stitching of multiple single exposure patterns. For replication of these structures on polymer, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a lab-made hot embossing machine is used. We then employ UV curable material and doctor blading to realize the waveguide cores. The created diffractive and waveguide structures are characterized in terms of diffraction efficiency and optical propagation loss, respectively, showing good optical quality and performance. With our fabrication system we have demonstrated a diffraction efficiency of 71% for multilevel grating structure and a propagation loss for stitched waveguides of 2.07 dB/cm at a wavelength of 638 nm. These basic elements will be employed to realize entire optical measurement systems for applications in sensing and integrated photonics in the next step.”

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Publication: OSA Continuum
Issue/Year: OSA Continuum, Volume 3; Number 10; Pages 2808; 2020
DOI: 10.1364/osac.400056

Method for single-shot fabrication of chiral woodpile photonic structures using phase-controlled interference lithography

Author(s):

Swagato Sarkar, Krishnendu Samanta, and Joby Joseph

Abstract:

“In this report, we propose a large-area, scalable and reconfigurable single-shot
optical fabrication method using phase-controlled interference lithography (PCIL) to realize
submicrometer chiral woodpile photonic structures. This proposed technique involves a 3 + 3
double-cone geometry with beams originated from a computed phase mask displayed on a single
spatial light modulator. Simulation studies show the filtering response of such structures for
linearly polarized plane wave illumination, with structural features tunable through a single
parameter of interference angle. Further, these single chiral woodpile structures show dual
chirality on illumination with both right circularly and left circularly polarized light through
simulation. Experimentally fabricated patterns on photoresist show resemblance to the desired
chiral woodpile structures.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Volume 28, Issue 3, pp. 4347-4361
DOI: 10.1364/OE.384987

Simultaneous direct holographic fabrication of photonic cavity and graded photonic lattice with dual periodicity, dual basis, and dual symmetry

Author(s):

D. Lowell and J. Lutkenhaus and D. George and U. Philipose and B. Chen and Y. Lin

Abstract:

“For the first time, to the authors’ best knowledge, this paper demonstrates the digital, holographic fabrication of graded, super-basis photonic lattices with dual periodicity, dual basis, and dual symmetry. Pixel-by-pixel phase engineering of the laser beam generates the highest resolution in a programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) for the direct imaging of graded photonic super-lattices. This technique grants flexibility in designing 2-D lattices with size-graded features, differing periodicities, and differing symmetries, as well as lattices having simultaneously two periodicities and two symmetries in high resolutions. By tuning the diffraction efficiency ratio from the SLM, photonic cavities can also be generated in the graded super-lattice simultaneously through a one-exposure process. A high quality factor of over 1.56 × 106 for a cavity mode in the graded photonic lattice with a large super-cell is predicted by simulations.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express Vol. 25, Issue 13, pp. 14444-14452 (2017)
DOI: 10.1364/OE.25.014444

Novel approaches to the design of halftone masks for analog lithography

Author(s): Marcel Teschke and Stefan Sinzinger

Abstract:

“We report novel approaches to the design of halftone masks for analog lithography. The approaches are derived from interferometric phase contrast. In a first step we show that the interferometric phase-contrast method with detour holograms can be reduced into a single binary mask. In a second step we introduce the interferometric phase-contrast method by interference of the object wavefront with the conjugate object wavefront. This method also allows for a design of a halftone mask. To use kinoform holograms as halftone phase masks, we show in a third step the combination of the zeroth-order phase-contrast technique with the interferometric phase-contrast method.”

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Publication: Applied Optics
Issue/Year: Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 26, pp. 4767-4776 (2008)
DOI: 10.1364/AO.47.004767