Deep speckle correlation: a deep learning approach toward scalable imaging through scattering media

Author(s):

Yunzhe Li and Yujia Xue and Lei Tian

Abstract:

“Imaging through scattering is an important yet challenging problem. Tremendous progress has been made by exploiting the deterministic input–output “transmission matrix” for a fixed medium. However, this “one-to-one” mapping is highly susceptible to speckle decorrelations – small perturbations to the scattering medium lead to model errors and severe degradation of the imaging performance. Our goal here is to develop a new framework that is highly scalable to both medium perturbations and measurement requirement. To do so, we propose a statistical “one-to-all” deep learning (DL) technique that encapsulates a wide range of statistical variations for the model to be resilient to speckle decorrelations. Specifically, we develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) that is able to learn the statistical information contained in the speckle intensity patterns captured on a set of diffusers having the same macroscopic parameter. We then show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that the trained CNN is able to generalize and make high-quality object predictions through an entirely different set of diffusers of the same class. Our work paves the way to a highly scalable DL approach for imaging through scattering media.”

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Publication: Optica

Issue/Year/DOI: Optica Volume 5, Issue 10 pp. 1181-1190 (2018)
DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.5.001181

Single-shot memory-effect video

Author(s):

Xiaohan Li and Andrew Stevens and Joel A. Greenberg and Michael E. Gehm

Abstract:

“Imaging through opaque scattering media is critically important in applications ranging from biological and astronomical imaging to metrology and security. While the random process of scattering in turbid media produces scattered light that appears uninformative to the human eye, a wealth of information is contained in the signal and can be recovered using computational post-processing techniques. Recent studies have shown that statistical correlations present in the scattered light, known as ‘memory effects’, allow for diffraction-limited imaging through opaque media without detailed knowledge of (or access to) the source or scatterer. However, previous methods require that the object and/or scatterer be static during the measurement. We overcome this limitation by combining traditional memory effect imaging with coded-aperture-based computational imaging techniques, which enables us to realize for the first time single-shot video of arbitrary dynamic scenes through dynamic, opaque media. This has important implications for a wide range of real-world imaging scenarios.”

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Publication: Scientific Reports

Issue/Year/DOI: Scientific Reports 8, Article number: 13402 (2018)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31697-8

Multiple-plane image formation by Walsh zone plates

Author(s):

Federico Machado, Vicente Ferrando, Fernando Giménez, Walter D. Furlan, and Juan A. Monsoriu

Abstract:

“A radial Walsh filter is a phase binary diffractive optical element characterized by a set of concentric rings that take the phase values 0 or π, corresponding to the values + 1 or −1 of a given radial Walsh function. Therefore, a Walsh filter can be re-interpreted as an aperiodic multifocal zone plate, capable to produce images of multiple planes simultaneously in a single output plane of an image forming system. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time the focusing capabilities of these structures. Additionally, we report the first achievement of images of multiple-plane objects in a single image plane with these aperiodic diffractive lenses.”

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Publication: Optics Express

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express Volume 26, Issue 16
DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.021210

Lensless Stokes holography with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss approach

Author(s):

Darshika Singh and Rakesh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

“The recording and reconstruction of the Stokes parameter is of paramount importance for the description of the vectorial interference of light. Polarization holography provides a complete vectorial wavefront, however, direct recording and reconstruction of the hologram is not possible in a situation where the object is located behind the random scattering layer. The Stokes holography plays an important role in such situations and makes use of the Fourier transform relation between the Stokes parameters (SPs) at the scattering plane and the generalized Stokes parameters (GSPs) of the random field. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the Stokes holography with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometer. We also propose and implement a lensless Fourier configuration for the Stokes holography. This permits us to reconstruct the wavefront from the GSPs at any arbitrary distance from the scattering plane. The application of the proposed technique is experimentally demonstrated for the 3D imaging of two different objects lying behind the random scattering medium. Depth information of the 3D objects is obtained by digitally propagating the generalized Stokes parameters to a different longitudinal distance. The quality of the reconstruction is assessed by measuring the overall visibility, efficiency, and PSNR of the reconstruction parameters.”

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Publication: Optics Express

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 26, Issue 8, pp. 10801-10812 (2018)
DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.010801

Lateral position correction in ptychography using the gradient of intensity patterns

Author(s):

Priya Dwivedi and Sander Konijnenberg and Silvania Pereira and Paul Urbach

Abstract:

“Ptychography, a form of Coherent Diffractive Imaging, is used with short wavelengths (e.g. X-rays, electron beams) to achieve high-resolution image reconstructions. One of the limiting factors for the reconstruction quality is the accurate knowledge of the illumination probe positions. Recently, many advances have been made to relax the requirement for the probe positions accuracy. Here, we analyse and demonstrate a straightforward approach that can be used to correct the probe positions with sub-pixel accuracy. Simulations and experimental results with visible light are presented in this work.”

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Publication: Ultramicroscopy

Issue/Year/DOI: Ultramicroscopy, Volume 192, September 2018, Pages 29-36
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2018.04.004

Non-iterative method for phase retrieval and coherence characterization by focus variation using a fixed star-shaped mask

Author(s):

A. P. Konijnenberg and Xingyuan Lu and Leixin Liu and W. M. J. Coene and Chengliang Zhao and H. P. Urbach

Abstract:

“A novel non-iterative phase retrieval method is proposed and demonstrated with a proof-of-principle experiment. The method uses a fixed specially designed mask and through-focus intensity measurements. It is demonstrated that this method is robust to spatial partial coherence in the illumination, making it suitable for coherent diffractive imaging using spatially partially coherent light, as well as for coherence characterization.”

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Publication: Optics Express

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 9332- 9343 (2018)
DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.009332

Superresolution far-field imaging of complex objects using reduced superoscillating ripples

Author(s):

Xiao Han Dong and Alex M. H. Wong and Minseok Kim and George V. Eleftheriades

Abstract:

“Superoscillation is a phenomenon where a wave oscillates locally faster than its highest Fourier component. While previous reports have shown attractive possibilities for a superoscillation-based far-field superresolution imaging device, it has also been recognized that a high-energy “sideband” region coexists with the superresolution features. This sideband causes strong restrictions and necessitates trade-offs in achievable resolution, viewing area, and sensitivity of the imaging device. In this work, we introduce a new class of superoscillation waveform—which consists of a diffraction-limited hotspot surrounded by low-energy superoscillating sidelobe ripples. This waveform alleviates the aforementioned trade-off and enables superresolution imaging for complex objects over a larger viewing area while maintaining a practical level of sensitivity. Using this waveform as the point spread function of an imaging system, we demonstrate the successful superresolution of Latin letters without performing scanning and/or post-processing operations.”

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Publication: Optica

Issue/Year/DOI: Optica, Vol. 4, Issue 9, pp. 1126-1133 (2017)
DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.4.001126

Resolving images by blurring: superresolution method with a scattering mask between the observed objects and the hologram recorder

Author(s):

Yuval Kashter and A. Vijayakumar and Joseph Rosen

Abstract:

“An important quest in optical imaging has been, and still is, extending the resolution of imaging systems beyond the diffraction limit. We propose a superresolution technique in which the image is first blurred by a scattering mask, and then recovered from the blurry data with improved resolution. We introduced a scattering mask into the space between the observed objects and the objective lens of a Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) system to demonstrate the method. Optical waves, containing high spatial frequencies of the object, which are usually filtered out by the limited system aperture, were introduced into the system due to the scattering nature of the scattering mask. As a consequence, both the effective numerical aperture and the spatial bandwidth of the system were enlarged. The image resolution could therefore be improved far beyond the resolution limit dictated by the limited numerical aperture of the system. We demonstrated the technique using a modified FINCH system and the results were compared with other systems, all having the same aperture dimensions. We showed a resolution enhancement in comparison to conventional FINCH and regular imaging systems, with the same numerical apertures. The theoretical and experimental data presented here establishes the proposed method as an attractive platform for an advanced superresolution system that can resolve better than conventional imaging systems.”

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Publication: Optica

Issue/Year/DOI: Optica, Vol. 4, Issue 8, (2017)
DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.4.000932

Computational super-resolution phase retrieval from multiple phase-coded diffraction patterns: simulation study and experiments

Author(s):

Vladimir Katkovnik and Igor Shevkunov and Nikolay V. Petrov and Karen Egiazarian

Abstract:

“In this paper, we consider computational super-resolution inverse diffraction phase retrieval. The optical setup is lensless, with a spatial light modulator for aperture phase coding. The paper is focused on experimental tests of the super-resolution sparse phase amplitude retrieval algorithm. We start from simulations and proceed to physical experiments. Both simulation tests and experiments demonstrate good-quality imaging for super-resolution with a factor of 4 and a serious advantage over diffraction-limited resolution as defined by Abbe’s criterion.”

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Publication: Optica

Issue/Year/DOI: Optica , Vol. 4, Issue 7, (2017)
DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.4.000786

Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation.

Author(s):

Zhu, Tengfeng and Zhou, Yihan and Lou, Yijie and Ye, Hui and Qiu, Min and Ruan, Zhichao and Fan, Shanhui

Abstract:

“Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.”

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Publication: Nature Communications

Issue/Year/DOI: Nature Communications volume 8, Article number: 15391 (2017)
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15391

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