Acceleration of polygon-based computer-generated holograms using look-up tables and reduction of the table size via principal component analysis

Author(s):

Wang, Fan; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Zhang, Yaping; Kakue, Takashi & Ito, Tomoyoshi

Abstract:

“In this study, we first analyze the fully analytical frequency spectrum solving method based on three-dimensional affine transform. Thus, we establish a new method for combining look-up tables (LUTs) with polygon holography. The proposed method was implemented and proved to be accelerated about twice compared to the existing methods. In addition, principal component analysis was used to compress the LUTs, effectively reducing the required memory without artifacts. Finally, we calculated very complex objects on a graphics processing unit using the proposed method, and the calculation speed was higher than that of existing polygon-based methods.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 22; Pages 35442; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.435966

Fast calculation of computer generated hologram based on single Fourier transform for holographic three-dimensional display

Author(s):

Chang, Chenliang; Zhu, Dongchen; Li, Jiamao; Wang, Di; Xia, Jun & Zhang, Xiaolin

Abstract:

“We present an efficient method for the fast calculation of computer generated hologram (CGH). The 3D object is split into sub-layers according to its depth information. A 2D all-in-focus image is generated by sequential tiling all the layers in one plane. A Fourier hologram that contains all the information of 3D object is calculated from the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the reassembled 2D image. By multiplying a pre-calculated multifocal off-axis digital phase mask (DPM) to the Fourier hologram, the content of each layer is axially relocated to different depth in the Fourier transform optical system to reconstruct the 3D object. The computation speed of the proposed method is greatly improved with only single FFT calculation process. Both of simulation and experimental results proves the validation of the proposed method.”

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Publication: Displays
Issue/Year: Displays, Volume 69; Pages 102064; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.displa.2021.102064

Wide angle holographic video projection display

Author(s):

Chlipała, Maksymilian; a; Kozacki, Tomasz; Yeom, Han-Ju; Martinez-Carranza, Juan; Rafał; Kukołowicz; Kim, Jinwoong; Yang, Jong-Heon; Choi, Ji Hun; Pi, Jae-Eun & Hwang, Chi-Sun

Abstract:

“Holographic projection displays provide high diffraction efficiency. However, they have a limited projection angle. This work proposes a holographic projection display with a wide angle, which gives an image of size 306mm×161mm at 700 mm and reduced speckle noise. The solution uses single Fourier lens imaging with a frequency filter and hologram generation utilizing complex coding and nonparaxial diffraction. The experiment was performed with a 4K phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) to prove the high efficiency of the developed numerical tools. Optical reconstruction shows high resolution and high image quality achieved from a single frame. Hence, displaying video at a full frame rate of the SLM is possible.”

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Publication: Optics Letters
Issue/Year: Optics Letters, Volume 46; Number 19; Pages 4956; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/ol.430275

Hologram computation using the radial point spread function

Author(s):

Yasuki, Daiki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Makowski, Michal; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Kakue, Takashi & Ito, Tomoyoshi

Abstract:

“Holograms are computed by superimposing point spread functions (PSFs), which represent the distribution of light on the hologram plane. The computational cost and the spatial bandwidth product required to generate holograms are significant; therefore, it is challenging to compute high-resolution holograms at the rates required for videos. Among the possible displays, fixed-eye-position holographic displays, such as holographic head-mounted displays, reduce the spatial bandwidth product by fixing eye positions while satisfying almost all human depth cues. In eye-fixed holograms, by calculating a part distribution of the entire PSF, we observe reconstructed images that maintain the image quality and the depth of focus almost as high as those generated by the entire PSF. In this study, we accelerate the calculation of eye-fixed holograms by engineering the PSFs. We propose cross and radial PSFs, and we determine that, out of the two, the radial PSFs have a better image quality. By combining the look-up table method and the wavefront-recording plane method with radial PSFs, we show that the proposed method can rapidly compute holograms.”

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Publication: Applied Optics
Issue/Year: Applied Optics, Volume 60; Number 28; Pages 8829; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/ao.437777

Holographic near-eye display based on complex amplitude modulation with band-limited zone plates

Author(s):

Chen, Yun; Hua, Minjie; Zhang, Tianshun; Zhou, Mingxin; Wu, Jianhong & Zou, Wenlong

Abstract:

“A holographic near-eye display (NED) system based on complex amplitude modulation (CAM) with band-limited zone plates is proposed. The whole system mainly consists of a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM), an Abbe-Porter filter system, an eyepiece, and an image combiner. The point source method based on band limited zone plates is used to accurately control the bandwidth of the target complex amplitude. The effects of intensity modulation coefficient γ in the frequency-filtering method on the intensity and the quality of reconstructed images are analyzed, which provide a judgment basis for selecting the appropriate value of γ. We also derive the expressions of the field of view (FOV) and exit pupil of the NED system. Since the holographic image is magnified in two steps in this system, the large FOV can be obtained. The optical experimental results show that the proposed system can provide a dynamic holographic three-dimensional (3D) augmented reality (AR) display with a 23.5°horizontal FOV.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 14; Pages 22749; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.431032

Vision-correcting Holographic Display: Evaluation of Aberration Correcting Hologram

Author(s):

Kim, Dongyeon; Nam, Seung-Woo; Bang, Kiseung; Lee, Byounghyo; Lee, Seungjae; Jeong, Youngmo; Seo, Jongmo & Lee, Byoungho

Abstract:

“Vision-correcting displays are key to achieving physical and physiological comforts to the users with refractive errors. Among such displays are holographic displays, which can provide a high-resolution vision-adaptive solution with complex wavefront modulation. However, none of the existing hologram rendering techniques have considered the optical properties of the human eye nor evaluated the significance of vision correction. Here, we introduce vision-correcting holographic display and hologram acquisition that integrates user-dependent prescriptions and a physical model of the optics, enabling the correction of on-axis and off-axis aberrations. Experimental and empirical evaluations of the vision-correcting holographic displays show the competence of holographic corrections over the conventional vision correction solutions.”

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Publication: Biomedical Optics Express
Issue/Year: Biomedical Optics Express,Vol. 12, Issue 8, pp. 5179-5195, 2021
DOI: 10.1364/boe.433919

Single-shot digital multiplexed holography for the measurement of deep shapes

Author(s):

Kozacki, Tomasz; Mikuła-Zdańkowska, Marta; Martinez-Carranza, Juan & Idicula, Moncy Sajeev

Abstract:

“This work develops a single-shot holographic profilometer that enables shape characterization of discontinuous deep surfaces. This is achieved by combining hologram frequency multiplexing and an illumination technique of complex amplitude in multi-incidence angle profilometer. Object illumination is carried out from seven directions simultaneously, where the radial angular coordinates of illumination plane waves obey the geometric series. It is shown that: (i) the illumination pattern provides the required frequency separation of all object wavefronts in transverse frequency space, which is necessary for hologram demultiplexing, and (ii) numerical generation of longitudinal scanning function (LSF) is possible, which has large measurement range, high axial resolution, and small side lobes. Low side lobes of LSF and the developed multiplexed field dependent aberration compensation method are essential to minimize the negative influence of speckle noise of single-shot capture on the measurement result. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated with experimental measurement of heights of two step-like objects.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 14; Pages 21965; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.428419

Fourier horizontal parallax only computer and digital holography of large size

Author(s):

Kozacki, Tomasz; Martinez-Carranza, Juan; kuko{l}owicz, Rafa{l} & Chlipa{l}a, Maksymilian

Abstract:

“Registration and reconstruction of high-quality digital holograms with a large view angle are intensive computer tasks since they require the space-bandwidth product (SBP) of the order of tens of gigapixels or more. This massive use of SBP severely affects the storing and manipulation of digital holograms. In order to reduce the computer burden, this work focuses on the generation and reconstruction of very large horizontal parallax only digital holograms (HPO-DHs). It is shown that these types of holograms can preserve high quality and large view angle in x direction while keeping a low use of SBP. This work first proposes a numerical technique that allows calculating very large HPO-DHs with large pixel size by merging the Fourier holography and phase added stereogram algorithm. The generated Fourier HPO-DHs enable accurate storing of holographic data from 3D objects. To decode the information contained in these Fourier HPO-DHs (FHPO-DHs), a novel angular spectrum (AS) technique that provides an efficient use of the SBP for reconstruction is proposed. Our reconstruction technique, which is called compact space bandwidth AS (CSW-AS), makes use of cylindrical parabolic waves that solve sampling issues of FHPO-DHs and AS. Moreover, the CSW-AS allows for implementing zero-padding for accurate wavefield reconstructions. Hence, suppression of aliased components and high spatial resolution is possible. Notably, the imaging chain of Fourier HPO-DH enables efficient calculation, reconstruction and storing of HPO holograms of large size. Finally, the accuracy and utility of the developed technique is proved by both numerical and optical reconstructions.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 12; Pages 18173; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.421186

SLM Simulation and MonteCarlo Path Tracing for Computer-Generated Holograms

Author(s):

Magallón, Juan; Blesa, Alfonso & Serón, Francisco

Abstract:

“Computer holography is a growing research field that must pay attention to two main issues concerning computing effort: the visualization of a 3D virtual scene with photo-realistic quality and the bottleneck related to hologram digitizalition and visualization limits. This work shows a computational approach based on a Monte Carlo path-tracing algorithm, which accounts for both geometrical and physical phenomena involved in hologram generation, and, therefore, makes a feasible estimation of computing time costs. As these holograms also require yet unavailable visualization devices, their behavior needs to be simulated by computer techniques.”

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Publication: SN Computer Science
Issue/Year: SN Computer Science, Volume 2; Number 3; 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s42979-021-00632-6

Towards real-time photorealistic 3D holography with deep neural networks

Author(s):

Shi, Liang; Li, Beichen; Kim, Changil; Kellnhofer, Petr & Matusik, Wojciech

Abstract:

“The ability to present three-dimensional (3D) scenes with continuous depth sensation has a profound impact on virtual and augmented reality, human–computer interaction, education and training. Computer-generated holography (CGH) enables high-spatio-angular-resolution 3D projection via numerical simulation of diffraction and interference1. Yet, existing physically based methods fail to produce holograms with both per-pixel focal control and accurate occlusion. The computationally taxing Fresnel diffraction simulation further places an explicit trade-off between image quality and runtime, making dynamic holography impractical. Here we demonstrate a deep-learning-based CGH pipeline capable of synthesizing a photorealistic colour 3D hologram from a single RGB-depth image in real time. Our convolutional neural network (CNN) is extremely memory efficient (below 620 kilobytes) and runs at 60 hertz for a resolution of 1,920 × 1,080 pixels on a single consumer-grade graphics processing unit. Leveraging low-power on-device artificial intelligence acceleration chips, our CNN also runs interactively on mobile (iPhone 11 Pro at 1.1 hertz) and edge (Google Edge TPU at 2.0 hertz) devices, promising real-time performance in future-generation virtual and augmented-reality mobile headsets. We enable this pipeline by introducing a large-scale CGH dataset (MIT-CGH-4K) with 4,000 pairs of RGB-depth images and corresponding 3D holograms. Our CNN is trained with differentiable wave-based loss functions and physically approximates Fresnel diffraction. With an anti-aliasing phase-only encoding method, we experimentally demonstrate speckle-free, natural-looking, high-resolution 3D holograms. Our learning-based approach and the Fresnel hologram dataset will help to unlock the full potential of holography and enable applications in metasurface design, optical and acoustic tweezer-based microscopic manipulation, holographic microscopy and single-exposure volumetric 3D printing.”

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Publication: Nature
Issue/Year: Nature, Volume 591; Number 7849; Pages 234–239; 2021
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03152-0