Optically Manipulated Microtools to Measure Adhesion of the Nanoparticle-Targeting Ligand Glutathione to Brain Endothelial Cells

Author(s):

Tamás Fekete, Mária Mészáros, Zsolt Szegletes, Gaszton Vizsnyiczai, László Zimányi, Mária A. Deli, Szilvia Veszelka*, and Lóránd Kelemen

Abstract:

“Targeting nanoparticles as drug delivery platforms is crucial to facilitate their cellular entry. Docking of nanoparticles by targeting ligands on cell membranes is the first step for the initiation of cellular uptake. As a model system, we studied brain microvascular endothelial cells, which form the anatomical basis of the blood–brain barrier, and the tripeptide glutathione, one of the most effective targeting ligands of nanoparticles to cross the blood–brain barrier. To investigate this initial docking step between glutathione and the membrane of living brain endothelial cells, we applied our recently developed innovative optical method. We present a microtool, with a task-specific geometry used as a probe, actuated by multifocus optical tweezers to characterize the adhesion probability and strength of glutathione-coated surfaces to the cell membrane of endothelial cells. The binding probability of the glutathione-coated surface and the adhesion force between the microtool and cell membrane was measured in a novel arrangement: cells were cultured on a vertical polymer wall and the mechanical forces were generated laterally and at the same time, perpendicularly to the plasma membrane. The adhesion force values were also determined with more conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements using functionalized colloidal probes. The optical trapping-based method was found to be suitable to measure very low adhesion forces (≤ 20 pN) without a high level of noise, which is characteristic for AFM measurements in this range. The holographic optical tweezers-directed functionalized microtools may help characterize the adhesion step of nanoparticles initiating transcytosis and select ligands to target nanoparticles.”

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Publication: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue/Year: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Volume 13; Number 33; Pages 39018–39029; 2021
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.1c08454

Experimental analysis of adaptive optics correction methods on the beam carrying orbital angular momentum mode through oceanic turbulence

Author(s):

Zhan, Haichao; Wang, Le; Wang, Wennai & Zhao, Shengmei

Abstract:

“In recent years, as the demand for underwater communication has increased, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has attracted a lot of attentions. Meanwhile, orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been applied in UWOC system to increase communication link capacity. However, the aberrations caused by oceanic turbulence (OT) is unavoidable, which results in serious intermodal crosstalk. Usually, adaptive optics (AO) is used to compensate these distortion aberrations. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the influence of the distortion caused by OT, and evaluate the performance of AO correction algorithms, including Shack-Hartmann (SH), Stochastic-Parallel-Gradient-Descent (SPGD) and Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithms. During the experiment, OT is simulated by using improved random phase screen model. We discuss the influence of various parameters of OT, including relative strength of temperature and salinity, strength of OT , and propagation distance, on the compensation effect with and without correction algorithms. The results show that all the three AO algorithms have good compensation effect on the distortion caused by OT, and GS algorithm has a better capability than the other two algorithms. Additionally, when the iteration numbers is less than 100, the compensation effect of GS and SPGD algorithms becomes more obvious as the iteration numbers increases, and GS algorithm is superior to SPGD algorithm. This work is beneficial to aberration correction of OAM-based UWOC system.”

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Publication: Optik
Issue/Year: Optik, Volume 240; Pages 166990; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2021.166990

Predicting optical transmission through complex scattering media from reflection patterns with deep neural networks

Author(s):

Skarsoulis, Kyriakos; Kakkava, Eirini & Psaltis, Demetri

Abstract:

“Deep neural networks (DNNs) are used to reconstruct transmission speckle intensity patterns from therespective reflection speckle intensity patterns generated by illuminated parafilm layers. The dependence ofthe reconstruction accuracy on the thickness of the sample is examined for different illumination patterns ofvarious feature sizes. High reconstruction accuracy is obtained even for large parafilm thicknesses, for whichthe memory effect of the sample is vanishingly small. The generalization capability of the DNN is also studiedfor unseen scatterers of the same type.”

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Publication: Optics Communications
Issue/Year: Optics Communications, Volume 492; Pages 126968; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.optcom.2021.126968

Single-plane and multiplane quantitative phase imaging by self-reference on-axis holography with a phase-shifting method

Author(s):

Hai, Nathaniel & Rosen, Joseph

Abstract:

“A new quantitative phase imaging approach is proposed based on self-reference holography. Three on-axis interferograms with different values of the phase filter are superposed. The superposition yields a more accurate phase map of the wavefront emerging from the object, compared with standard off-axis interferometry. Reduced temporal noise levels in the measured phase map and efficient phase recovery process for optically thin and thick transmissive phase objects highlight the applicability of the suggested framework for various fields ranging from metrology to bio-imaging. Qualitative phase imaging is also done online without altering the optical configuration. Qualitative phase detections of multiple planes of interest are converted to quantitative phase maps of the multiplane scene by a rapid phase contrast-based phase retrieval algorithm, from a single camera exposure and with no moving parts in the system.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 15; Pages 24210; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.431529

Control of femtosecond single-filament formation via feedback-based wavefront shaping

Author(s):

Li, Jing; Tan, Wenjiang; Si, Jinhai; Tang, Shiyun; Kang, Zhen & Hou, Xun

Abstract:

“We demonstrate the control of femtosecond single-filament formation via feedback-based wavefront shaping. It is observed that the optimal phase profile forms a single-filament with closed-loop genetic algorithm. Using this method, the position stability of the filament can be significantly improved, and the position of the single filament can be flexibly adjusted. Additionally, a two-step approach combining the premodulation of pinhole with wavefront shaping is presented for forming a bright single filament rapidly.”

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Publication: Optics Communications
Issue/Year: Optics Communications, Volume 490; Pages 126929; 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.optcom.2021.126929

Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Controlled Hybrid Nanowire Circuit

Author(s):

Ren, Haoran; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chenhao; He, Chenglin; Wang, Yixiong; Pan, Anlian & Maier, Stefan A.

Abstract:

“Plasmonic nanostructures can enable compact multiplexing of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light; however, strong dissipation of the highly localized OAM-distinct plasmonic fields in the near-field region hinders on-chip OAM transmission and processing. Superior transmission efficiency is offered by semiconductor nanowires sustaining highly confined optical modes, but only the polarization degree of freedom has been utilized for their selective excitation. Here we demonstrate that incident OAM beams can selectively excite single-crystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires through coupling OAM-distinct plasmonic fields into nanowire waveguides for long-distance transportation. This allows us to build an OAM-controlled hybrid nanowire circuit for optical logic operations including AND and OR gates. In addition, this circuit enables the on-chip photoluminescence readout of OAM-encrypted information. Our results open exciting new avenues not only for nanowire photonics to develop OAM-controlled optical switches, logic gates, and modulators but also for OAM photonics to build ultracompact photonic circuits for information processing.”

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Publication: Nano Letters
Issue/Year: Nano Letters, Volume 21; Number 14; Pages 6220–6227; 2021
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01979

Direct Tomography of High-Dimensional Density Matrices for General Quantum States of Photons

Author(s):

Zhou, Yiyu; Zhao, Jiapeng; Hay, Darrick; McGonagle, Kendrick; Boyd, Robert W. & Shi, Zhimin

Abstract:

“Quantum-state tomography is the conventional method used to characterize density matrices for general quantum states. However, the data acquisition time generally scales linearly with the dimension of the Hilbert space, hindering the possibility of dynamic monitoring of a high-dimensional quantum system. Here, we demonstrate a direct tomography protocol to measure density matrices of photons in the position basis through the use of a polarization-resolving camera, where the dimension of density matrices can be as large as 580×580 in our experiment. The use of the polarization-resolving camera enables parallel measurements in the position and polarization basis and as a result, the data acquisition time of our protocol does not increase with the dimension of the Hilbert space and is solely determined by the camera exposure time (on the order of 10 ms). Our method is potentially useful for the real-time monitoring of the dynamics of quantum states and paves the way for the development of high-dimensional, time-efficient quantum metrology techniques.”

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Publication: Physical Review Letters
Issue/Year: Physical Review Letters, Volume 127; Number 4; Pages 040402; 2021
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.040402

Quantum cryptography technique: A way to improve security challenges in mobile cloud computing (MCC)

Author(s):

Abidin, Shafiqul; Swami, Amit; Ramirez-As{‘{i}}s, Edwin; Alvarado-Tolentino, Joseph; Maurya, Rajesh Kumar & Hussain, Naziya

Abstract:

“Quantum cryptography concentrates on the solution of cryptography that is imperishable due to the reason of fortification of secrecy which is applied to the public key distribution of quantum. It is a very prominent technology in which 2 beings can securely communicate along with the sights belongings to quantum physics. However, on basis of classical level cryptography, the used encodes were bits for data. As quantum utilizes the photons or particles polarize ones for encoding the quantized property. This is presented in qubits as a unit. Transmissions depend directly on the inalienable mechanic’s law of quantum for security. This paper includes detailed insight into the three most used and appreciated quantum cryptography applications that are providing its domain-wide service in the field of mobile cloud computing. These services are (it) DARPA Network, (ii) IPSEC implementation, and (iii) the twisted light HD implementation along with quantum elements, key distribution, and protocols.”

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Publication: Materials Today: Proceedings
Issue/Year: Materials Today: Proceedings, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.593

Holographic near-eye display based on complex amplitude modulation with band-limited zone plates

Author(s):

Chen, Yun; Hua, Minjie; Zhang, Tianshun; Zhou, Mingxin; Wu, Jianhong & Zou, Wenlong

Abstract:

“A holographic near-eye display (NED) system based on complex amplitude modulation (CAM) with band-limited zone plates is proposed. The whole system mainly consists of a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM), an Abbe-Porter filter system, an eyepiece, and an image combiner. The point source method based on band limited zone plates is used to accurately control the bandwidth of the target complex amplitude. The effects of intensity modulation coefficient γ in the frequency-filtering method on the intensity and the quality of reconstructed images are analyzed, which provide a judgment basis for selecting the appropriate value of γ. We also derive the expressions of the field of view (FOV) and exit pupil of the NED system. Since the holographic image is magnified in two steps in this system, the large FOV can be obtained. The optical experimental results show that the proposed system can provide a dynamic holographic three-dimensional (3D) augmented reality (AR) display with a 23.5°horizontal FOV.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 29; Number 14; Pages 22749; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/oe.431032

Super-resolution imaging by optical incoherent synthetic aperture with one channel at a time

Author(s):

Bulbul, Angika & Rosen, Joseph

Abstract:

“Imaging with an optical incoherent synthetic aperture (SA) means that the incoherent light from observed objects is processed over time from various points of view to obtain a resolution equivalent to single-shot imaging by the SA larger than the actual physical aperture. The operation of such systems has always been based on two-wave interference where the beams propagate through two separate channels. This limitation of two channels at a time is removed in the present study with the proposed SA where the two beams pass through the same single channel at any given time. The system is based on a newly developed self-interference technique named coded aperture correlation holography. At any given time, the recorded intensity is obtained from interference between two waves co-propagating through the same physical channel. One wave oriented in a particular polarization is modulated by a pseudorandom coded phase mask and the other one oriented orthogonally passes through an open subaperture. Both subapertures are multiplexed at the same physical window. The system is calibrated by a point spread hologram synthesized from the responses of a guide star. All the measurements are digitally processed to achieve a final image with a resolution higher than that obtained by the limited physical aperture. This unique configuration can offer alternatives for the current cumbersome systems composed of far apart optical channels in the large optical astronomical interferometers. Furthermore, the proposed concept paves the way to an SA system with a single less-expensive compact light collector in an incoherent optical regime that may be utilized for future ground-based or space telescopes.”

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Publication: Photonics Research
Issue/Year: Photonics Research, Volume 9; Number 7; Pages 1172; 2021
DOI: 10.1364/prj.422381