An active coronagraph using a liquid crystal array for exoplanet imaging: principle and testing

Author(s): Xi Zhang, De-Qing Ren, Yong-Tian Zhu and Jiang-Pei Dou. Abstract: “High-contrast imaging coronagraphs, used for the detection of exoplanets, have always adopted passive coronagraph optical components. It is therefore impossible to actively optimize the coronagraphs to achieve their best performance. To solve this problem, we propose a novel high-contrast imaging coronagraph which combines a liquid crystal array (LCA) for active pupil apodization and a deformable mirror (DM) for phase correction. The LCA we use is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator. The LCA is well calibrated and compensates for its amplitude non-uniformity and nonlinear intensity responsivity. We measured the imaging…

What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy

Author(s): C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte. Abstract: “With the availability of high-resolution miniature spatial light modulators (SLMs) new methods in optical microscopy have become feasible. The SLMs discussed in this review consist of miniature liquid crystal displays with micron-sized pixels that can modulate the phase and/or amplitude of an optical wavefront. In microscopy they can be used to control and shape the sample illumination, or they can act as spatial Fourier filters in the imaging path. Some of these applications are reviewed in this article. One of them, called spiral phase contrast, generates isotropic edge enhancement of…

3-D coherence holography using a modified Sagnac radial shearing interferometer with geometric phase shift

Author(s): Dinesh N. Naik, Takahiro Ezawa, Yoko Miyamoto, and Mitsuo Takeda Abstract: “A new image reconstruction scheme for coherence holography using a modified Sagnac-type radial shearing interferometer with geometric phase shift is proposed, and the first experimental demonstration of generic Leith-type coherence holography, which reconstructs off-axis 3-D objects with depth information, is presented. The reconstructed image, represented by a coherence function, can be visualized with a controllable magnification, which opens up a new possibility for a coherence imaging microscope.” Link to Publications Page Publication: Optics Express, (free download) Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 10633-10641 doi:10.1364/OE.17.010633

Programmable ultrashort-pulsed flying images

Author(s): M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald Abstract: “We report the generation of programmable two-dimensional arrangements of ultrashort-pulsed fringe-less Bessel-like beams of extended depth of focus (referred to as needle beams) without truncating apertures. A sub-20-fs Ti:sapphire laser and a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM) of high-fidelity temporal transfer in phase-only operation mode were used in the experiments. Axicon profiles with ultrasmall conical angles were approximated by adapted gray scale distributions. It was demonstrated that digitized image information encoded in amplitudephase maps of the needle beams is propagated over considerably large distances at minimal cross talk without the…

Phase Contrast Projection Display Using Photopolymer

Author(s): Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam; Park, Jae-Hyeung Abstract: “We propose a phase contrast filter using photopolymer, for the phase contrast projection display. The photopolymer has high photosensitivity such that its optically induced refractive index change has a linear dependency on the illuminating light intensity. We implemented a phase contrast projection display using photopolymer as a phase contrast filter. By controlling the refractive index change of the photopolymer, we successfully convert an input phase image into a high contrast intensity image. We also investigated the effect of the photopolymer illumination condition on the quality of the displayed intensity image. As a…

A spatial light phase modulator with an effective resolution of 4 mega-pixels

Author(s): Daryl Preece; Eric Yao; Graham Gibson; Richard Bowman; Jonathan Leach; Miles Padgett Abstract: “We report the design, construction and characterization of a 4 mega-pixel, optically-addressed, spatial light modulator (OSLM). The intensity distribution corresponding to a kinoform is displayed across two wide-screen liquid crystal on silicon displays, the images of which are combined and relayed to the address face of a 40 mm aperture OSLM. This spatially varying intensity profile is converted into a phase hologram on the readout side of the OSLM. When illuminated at 532 nm we measure a first-order diffraction efficiency of ≈50% at 400 line pairs…

Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates

Author(s): S. Stellmer, C. Becker, P. Soltan-Panahi, E.-M. Richter, S. Dörscher, M. Baumert, J. Kronjäger, K. Bongs, and K. Sengstock Abstract: “We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description.” Link to Publications…

Oscillations and interactions of dark and dark–bright solitons in Bose–Einstein condensates

Author(s): Christoph Becker, Simon Stellmer, Parvis Soltan-Panahi, Sören Dörscher, Mathis Baumert, Eva-Maria Richter, Jochen Kronjäger, Kai Bongs & Klaus Sengstock Abstract: “Solitons are among the most distinguishing fundamental excitations in a wide range of nonlinear systems such as water in narrow channels, high-speed optical communication, molecular biology and astrophysics. Stabilized by a balance between spreading and focusing, solitons are wave packets that share some exceptional generic features such as form stability and particle-like properties. Ultracold quantum gases represent very pure and well-controlled nonlinear systems, therefore offering unique possibilities to study soliton dynamics. Here, we report on the observation of long-lived…

Optically driven pumps and flow sensors for microfluidic systems

Author(s): H Mushfique, J Leach, R Di Leonardo, M J Padgett, J M Cooper Abstract: “This paper describes techniques for generating and measuring fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The first technique is for the multi-point measurement of fluid flow in microscopic geometries. The flow sensing method uses an array of optically trapped microprobe sensors to map out the fluid flow. The optical traps are alternately turned on and off such that the probe particles are displaced by the flow of the surrounding fluid and then retrapped. The particles’ displacements are monitored by digital video microscopy and directly converted into velocity…

Improved micro topography measurement by LCoS-based fringe projection and z-stitching

Author(s): X. Schwab, C. Kohler, K. Körner, N. Eichhorn, W. Osten Abstract: “Fringe projection is a commonly used method for 3D surface metrology. Numerous applications have demonstrated a measurement field from a few millimeters to several meters. To enable the measurement of micro systems with this method, a zoom stereo microscope from Leica was used as the basis for the implementation of a fringe projection microscope. A state of the art twisted nematic WUXGA LCD was used for flexible fringe generation. The high fill factor of this reflective LCoS in combination with a 500 Lumen LED and a 12 bit…