Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media

Author(s): S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan

Abstract:

“We introduce a method to experimentally measure the monochromatic transmission matrix of a complex medium in optics. This method is based on a spatial phase modulator together with a full-field interferometric measurement on a camera. We determine the transmission matrix of a thick random scattering sample. We show that this matrix exhibits statistical properties in good agreement with random matrix theory and allows light focusing and imaging through the random medium. This method might give important insight into the mesoscopic properties of a complex medium.”

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Publication: Physical Review Letters
Issue/Year: Phys. Rev. Lett., Volume 104, Issue 10, 100601 (2010)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.100601

Self-reference quantitative phase microscopy for microfluidic devices

Author(s): Jaeduck Jang, Chae Yun Bae, Je-Kyun Park, Jong Chul Ye

Abstract:

“This Letter describes a quantitative phase microscopy for microfluidic devices using a simple self-referencing interferometry. Compared with the gross dimensions of the microfluidic device, the microchannel occupies only a small area of the device. Hence, the reference field can be generated by inverting the relative position of the specimen and background. Our system is realized using an extended depth-of-field optics in the form of Michelson interferometry, which allows quantitative phase measurement for an increased depth-of-field without moving objective lens or specimen. Furthermore, the system can be readily converted to a higher signal-to-noise ratio Hilbert phase microscopy thanks to the simultaneous acquisition of double interferograms. The performance of our system is verified using polymer beads, micropatterning poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and embryo cells in the microchannels.”

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Publication:Optics Letters
Issue/Year: Optics Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 4, pp. 514-516 (2010)
DOI: 10.1364/OL.35.000514

Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation

Author(s): Meng Cui, Changhuei Yang

Abstract:

“In this work, we report a novel high capacity (number of degrees of freedom) open loop adaptive optics method, termed digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC), which provides a robust optoelectronic optical phase conjugation (OPC) solution. We showed that our prototype can phase conjugate light fields with ~3.9 x 10−3 degree accuracy over a range of ~3 degrees and can phase conjugate an input field through a relatively thick turbid medium (μsl ~13). Furthermore, we employed this system to show that the reversing of random scattering in turbid media by phase conjugation is surprisingly robust and accommodating of phase errors. An OPC wavefront with significant spatial phase errors (error uniformly distributed from – π/2 to π/2) can nevertheless allow OPC reconstruction through a scattering medium with ~40% of the efficiency achieved with phase error free OPC.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 3444-3455 (2010)
DOI: 10.1364/OE.18.003444

Self-reference extended depth-of-field quantitative phase microscopy

Author(s): Jaeduck Jang, Chae Yun Bae, Je-Kyun Park, and Jong Chul Ye

Abstract:

“This paper describes a novel quantitative phase microscopy based on a simple self-referencing scheme using Michelson interferometry. In order to achieve the homogeneous reference field for accurate phase measurement, the imaging field-of-view (FOV) is split onto the sample and homogenous background areas. The reference field can be generated by rotating the relative position of the sample and homogenous background in the object arm. Furthermore, our system is realized using an extended depth-of-field (eDOF) optics, which allows quantitative phase measurement for an increase of the depth-of-field without moving objective lens or specimen. The proposed method is confirmed by experimental results using various samples such as polystyrene beads and red blood cells (RBCs).”

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Publication: SPIE Proceedings
Issue/Year: Proc. SPIE 7570, 757018 (2010)
DOI: 10.1117/12.843082

Individually controlled multi-focus laser processing for two-photon polymerization

Author(s): Kotaro Obata, Jürgen Koch, and Boris N. Chichkov

Abstract:

“A parallel processing of two-photon polymerization structuring is demonstrated with spatial light modulator. Spatial light modulator generates multi-focus spots on the sample surface via phase modulation technique controlled by computer generated hologram pattern. Each focus spot can be individually controlled in position and laser intensity with computer generated hologram pattern displayed on spatial light modulator. The multi-focus spots two-photon polymerization achieves the fabrication of asymmetric structure. Moreover, smooth sine curved polymerized line with amplitude of 5 μm and a period of 200 μm was obtained by fast switching of CGH pattern.”

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Publication: SPIE Proceedings / Volume 7584 / Nonlinear Processing
Issue/Year: Proc. SPIE 7584, 75840L (2010)
DOI: 10.1117/12.842117

Plasmid copy number noise in monoclonal populations of bacteria

Author(s): Jérôme Wong Ng, Didier Chatenay, Jérôme Robert, Michael Guy Poirier

Abstract:

“Plasmids are extra chromosomal DNA that can confer to their hosts’ supplementary characteristics such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids code for their copy number through their own replication frequency. Even though the biochemical networks underlying the plasmid copy number (PCN) regulation processes have been studied and modeled, no measurement of the heterogeneity in PCN within a whole population has been done. We have developed a fluorescent-based measurement system, which enables determination of the mean and noise in PCN within a monoclonal population of bacteria. Two different fluorescent protein reporters were inserted: one on the chromosome and the other on the plasmid. The fluorescence of these bacteria was measured with a microfluidic flow cytometry device. We show that our measurements are consistent with known plasmid characteristics. We find that the partitioning system lowers the PCN mean and standard deviation. Finally, bacterial populations were allowed to grow without selective pressure. In this case, we were able to determine the plasmid loss rate and growth inhibition effect.”

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Publication: Physical Review E
Issue/Year: Phys. Rev. E, Volume 81, Issue 1, 011909 (2010)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.011909

Nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles

Author(s): Kang Yuan Lim, Pedro A. Quinto-Su, Evert Klaseboer, Boo Cheong Khoo, Vasan Venugopalan, Claus-Dieter Ohl

Abstract:

“The generation of arbitrarily shaped nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles is demonstrated with a optical technique. The nonspherical bubbles are formed using laser intensity patterns shaped by a spatial light modulator using linear absorption inside a liquid gap with a thickness of 40 μm. In particular we demonstrate the dynamics of elliptic, toroidal, square, and V-shaped bubbles. The bubble dynamics is recorded with a high-speed camera at framing rates of up to 300 000 frames per second. The observed bubble evolution is compared to predictions from an axisymmetric boundary element simulation which provides good qualitative agreement. Interesting dynamic features that are observed in both the experiment and simulation include the inversion of the major and minor axis for elliptical bubbles, the rotation of the shape for square bubbles, and the formation of a unidirectional jet for V-shaped bubbles. Further we demonstrate that specific bubble shapes can either be formed directly through the intensity distribution of a single laser focus, or indirectly using secondary bubbles that either confine the central bubble or coalesce with the main bubble. The former approach provides the ability to generate in principle any complex bubble geometry.”

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Publication: Physical Review E
Issue/Year: Phys. Rev. E, Volume 81, Issue 1, 016308 (2010)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016308

Spatial light modulator as a reconfigurable intracavity dispersive element for tunable lasers

Author(s): Lin Dong, Sergei Popov, Sergey Sergeyev and Ari T. Friberg

Abstract:

“An improved approach for narrow-band wavelength selection in tunable lasers is described. To provide the tunability, a reconfigurable diffractive optical element (DOE) based on a programmable spatial light modulator (PSLM) is applied. With a proper choice of the phase transfer function of the PSLM, the device can be used as a dispersive intra-cavity component for precise tuning within the lasing spectral band of a solid-state dye laser. The suggested design allows avoiding the mechanical movement of any cavity components. The tunability performance and simulation are demonstrated using the Fourier optics method. ”

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Publication: Central European Journal of Physics
Issue/Year: Central European Journal of Physics, Volume 8, Number 2, 228-234, (2009)
DOI: 10.2478/s11534-009-0151-4

Superhydrophobic surface structures in thermoplastic polymers by interference lithography and thermal imprinting

Author(s): Christian W.J. Berendsen, Marek Škereň, David Najdek and František Cerný

Abstract:

“We present a method to produce superhydrophobic surfaces in thermoplastic polymer substrates. The method involves the creation of a nickel stamp using a customized laser interference lithography technique and electroplating processes. This stamp is used to emboss sub-micrometer periodic structures into the thermoplastic. The modified surface is coated with a hydrophobic plasma-polymerized hexafluoropropene layer. Surfaces with different periodicity and relief depth were created. On the surface with the highest aspect ratio, advancing water contact angles of 167° were measured with a water contact angle hysteresis of below 5°.”

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Publication: Applied Surface Science
Issue/Year: Applied Surface Science, Volume 255, Issue 23, 15 September 2009, Pages 9305-9310
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.07.001

Diffractive performance of square Fresnel zone plates

Author(s): Javier Alda, José María Rico-García, Francisco Javier Salgado-Remacha, Luis Miguel Sanchez-Brea

Abstract:

“We analyze the optical behavior of square Fresnel zones plates. A theoretical analysis and numerical simulations based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld approach have been developed analyzing properties such as the depth of focus and the intensity of the focus in terms of the number of zones. In addition, an experimental verification has been performed using a Spatial Light Modulator to implement the designed square Fresnel zones plates.”

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Publication: Optics Communications
Issue/Year: Optics Communications, Volume 282, Issue 17, 1 September 2009, Pages 3402-3407
DOI: 10.1016/j.optcom.2009.05.053