Holographic Glasses for Virtual Reality

Author(s):

JONGHYUN KIM, NVIDIA, USA and Stanford University, USA
MANU GOPAKUMAR, SUYEON CHOI, AND YIFAN PENG, Stanford University, USA
WARD LOPES, NVIDIA, USA
GORDON WETZSTEIN, Stanford University, USA

Abstract:

“We resent Holographic Glasses, a holographic near-eye display system with an eyeglasses-like form factor for virtual reality. Holographic Glasses are composed of a pupil-replicating waveguide,
a spatial light modulator, and a geometric phase lens to create holographic images in a lightweight
and thin form factor. The proposed design can deliver full-color 3D holographic images using an optical stack of 2.5 mm thickness. A novel pupil-high-order gradient descent algorithm is presented for the correct phase calculation with the user’s varying pupil size. We implement benchtop and wearable prototypes for testing. Our binocular wearable prototype supports 3D focus cues and provides a diagonal field of view of 22.8? with a 2.3 mm static eye box and additional capabilities of dynamic eye box with beam steering, while weighing only 60 g excluding the driving board.”

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Publication: Association for Computing Machinery
Issue/Year: Association for Computing Machinery, 2022

High-resolution surface plasmon resonance holographic microscopy based on symmetrical excitation

Author(s):

Dou, Jiazhen; Dong, Chen; Dai, Siqing; Mi, Jingyu; Luo, Xiangyuan; Di, Jianglei; Zhang, Jiwei & Zhao, Jianlin

Abstract:

“Surface plasmon resonance holographic microscopy (SPRHM) is able to simultaneously obtain the amplitude- and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance (SPR) images, showing great potentials in imaging near-field targets with high sensitivity. However, suffered by the decaying length of surface plasmon wave which can be as long as tens of microns, the spatial resolution of SPRHM is lower than that of traditional holographic microscopy. In this work, we propose to enhance the spatial resolution in SPRHM by exciting surface plasmon resonance in two symmetrical directions and detecting the complex amplitudes of the reflected light symmetrically. Through the Fourier analysis of the recorded composite hologram, the reconstruction schemes for high-resolution amplitude- and phase-contrast SPR images are established, respectively. The feasibility and advantages of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations and experimental demonstrations of small-size particles and micro-structures.”

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Publication: Optics and Lasers in Engineering
Issue/Year: Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Volume 153; Pages 107000; 2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2022.107000

Generation of controllable spectrum in multiple positions from speckle patterns

Author(s):

Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Guodong; Vinu, R. V.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ziyang & Pu, Jixiong

Abstract:

“Feedback-based wavefront shaping has been proposed to modulate the speckle field generated by coherent light transmitting through scattering media. Different from a monochromatic light, a colorful speckle pattern is generated when polychromatic light transmits through scattering media. Although single-position spectrum modulation has been realized, multiple-position spectrum modulation is a much more complicated problem. Based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA2), we design a step-by-step strategy to solve this problem. The results show that modulated spectra in two spatial positions with controllable spectral shape, range and magnitude can be achieved. This research is expected to be applied in the field of adaptive spectral control ranging from advanced spectral filtering to optical fiber dispersion and multi-spectral imaging.”

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Publication: Optics & Laser Technology
Issue/Year: Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 149; Pages 107820; 2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2021.107820

Control of trion-to-exciton conversion in monolayer WS2 by orbital angular momentum of light

Author(s):

Kesarwani, Rahul; Simbulan, Kristan Bryan; Huang, Teng-De; Chiang, Yu-Fan; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Lan, Yann-Wen & Lu, Ting-Hua

Abstract:

“Controlling the density of exciton and trion quasiparticles in monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials at room temperature by nondestructive techniques is highly desired for the development of future optoelectronic devices. Here, the effects of different orbital angular momentum (OAM) lights on monolayer tungsten disulfide at both room temperature and low temperatures are investigated, which reveal simultaneously enhanced exciton intensity and suppressed trion intensity in the photoluminescence spectra with increasing topological charge of the OAM light. In addition, the trion-to-exciton conversion efficiency is found to increase rapidly with the OAM light at low laser power and decrease with increasing power. Moreover, the trion binding energy and the concentration of unbound electrons are estimated, which shed light on how these quantities depend on OAM. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the experimental data. These findings pave a way toward manipulating the exciton emission in 2D materials with OAM light for optoelectronic applications.”

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Publication: Science Advances
Issue/Year: Science Advances, Volume 8; Number 13; 2022
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm0100

Adaptive Detection of Wave Aberrations Based on the Multichannel Filter

Author(s):

Khorin, Pavel A.; Porfirev, Alexey P. & Khonina, Svetlana N.

Abstract:

“An adaptive method for determining the type and magnitude of aberration in a wide range is proposed on the basis of an optical processing of the analyzed wavefront using a multichannel filter matched to the adjustable Zernike phase functions. The approach is based on an adaptive (or step-by-step) compensation of wavefront aberrations based on a dynamically tunable multichannel filter implemented on a spatial light modulator. For adaptive filter adjustment, a set of criteria is proposed that takes into account not only the magnitude of the correlation peak, but also the maximum intensity, compactness, and orientation of the distribution in each diffraction order. The experimental results have shown the efficiency of the proposed approach for detecting wavefront aberrations in a wide range (from 0.1 λ to λ).”

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Publication: Photonics
Issue/Year: Photonics, Volume 9; Number 3; Pages 204; 2022
DOI: 10.3390/photonics9030204

Varifocal diffractive lenses for multi-depth microscope imaging

Author(s):

Reda, Francesco; Salvatore, Marcella; Borbone, Fabio; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Ambrosio, Antonio & Oscurato, Stefano Luigi

Abstract:

“Flat optical elements enable the realization of ultra-thin devices able to either reproduce or overcome the functionalities of standard bulky components. The fabrication of these elements involves the structuration of material surfaces on the light wavelength scale, whose geometry has to be carefully designed to achieve the desired optical functionality. In addition to the limits imposed by lithographic design-performance compromises, their optical behavior cannot be accurately tuned afterward, making them difficult to integrate in dynamic optical systems. Here we show the realization of fully reconfigurable flat varifocal diffractive lens, which can be in-place realized, erased and reshaped directly on the surface of an azopolymer film by an all-optical holographic process. Integrating the lens in the same optical system used as standard refractive microscope, results in a hybrid microscope capable of multi-depth object imaging. Our approach demonstrates that reshapable flat optics can be a valid choice to integrate, or even substitute, modern optical systems for advanced functionalities.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 30; Number 8; Pages 12695; 2022
DOI: 10.1364/oe.455520

Hogel-free Holography

Author(s):

Chakravarthula, Praneeth; Tseng, Ethan; Fuchs, Henry & Heide, Felix

Abstract:

“Holography is a promising avenue for high-quality displays without requiring bulky, complex optical systems. While recent work has demonstrated accurate hologram generation of 2D scenes, high-quality holographic projections of 3D scenes has been out of reach until now. Existing multiplane 3D holography approaches fail to model wavefronts in the presence of partial occlusion while holographic stereogram methods have to make a fundamental trade of between spatial and angular resolution. In addition, existing 3D holographic display methods rely on heuristic encoding of complex amplitude into phase-only pixels which results in holograms with severe artifacts. Fundamental limitations of the input representation, wavefront modeling, and optimization methods prohibit artifact-free 3D holographic projections in today’s displays. To lift these limitations, we introduce hogel-free holography which optimizes for true 3D holograms, supporting both depth- and view- dependent efects for the irst time. Our approach overcomes the fundamental spatio-angular resolution trade-of typical to stereogram approaches. Moreover, it avoids heuristic encoding schemes to achieve high image idelity over a 3D volume. We validate that the proposed method achieves 10 dB PSNR improvement on simulated holographic reconstructions. We also validate our approach on an experimental prototype with accurate parallax and depth focus efects”

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Publication: ACM Transactions on Graphics
Issue/Year: ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2022
DOI: 10.1145/3516428

Parametric characterization of ground surfaces with laser speckles

Author(s):

León Schweickhardt, Andreas Tausendfreund, Dirk Stöbener, and Andreas Fischer

Abstract:

“With well-known speckle measurement techniques, the root mean square height as well as the autocorrelation length of isotropic surfaces can be determined quickly and over a large area of interest. Beyond that, the present article studies the speckle-based measurement of anisotropic surfaces. For this purpose, a measurement setup and evaluation algorithm are presented that enable the characterization of unidirectionally anisotropic surfaces machined by grinding. As a result, four measurands are obtained from one speckle image: the machining direction, the autocorrelation length perpendicular to the machining direction, as well as two root mean square roughness parameters parallel and perpendicular to the machining direction. The first two measurands are obtained from a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform of the diffraction pattern resulting from the unidirectional tool marks and the latter two by a bidirectional evaluation of the speckle contrast. In addition to measurements on physical reference samples, a spatial light modulator is used to create a large number of surface topographies with known model parameters in order to quantify the measurement uncertainty.”

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Publication: Optics Express
Issue/Year: Optics Express, Volume 30; Number 8; Pages 12615; 2022
DOI: 10.1364/oe.454741
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