Mean focal length of an aberrated lens

Author(s): Cosmas Mafusire and Andrew Forbes

Abstract:

“We outline an approach for the calculation of the mean focal length of an aberrated lens and provide closed-form solutions that show that the focal length of the lens is dependent on the presence of defocus, x-astigmatism, and spherical aberration. The results are applicable to Gaussian beams in the presence of arbitrary-sized apertures. The theoretical results are confirmed experimentally, showing excellent agreement. As the final results are in algebraic form, the theory may readily be applied in the laboratory if the aberration coefficients of the lens are known.”

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Publication: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: JOSA A, Vol. 28, Issue 7, pp. 1403-1409 (2011)
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.28.001403

Three-dimensional holographic lithography by an iterative algorithm

Author(s): Joshua J. Cowling, Gavin L. Williams, Alan Purvis, Richard McWilliam, Jose J. Toriz-Garcia, Nicholas L. Seed, Florian B. Soulard, and Peter A. Ivey

Abstract:

“We have applied an iterative algorithm for hologram design with multiple output image planes arranged in close proximity to create continuous patterns within an imaging volume. These holograms have been designed for photolithography on three-dimensional surfaces. The influence of simulated image plane separation on the final image, and its suitability for lithography, is assessed. Results are presented and the most suitable case is demonstrated experimentally.”

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Publication: Optics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 13, pp. 2495-2497 (2011)
doi:10.1364/OL.36.002495