Fabrication of three-dimensional electrospun microstructures using phase modulated femtosecond laser pulses

January, 2012

Author(s): Nathan J. Jenness, Yiquan Wu, Robert L. Clark.


“Electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers were selectively ablated to form microstructures via the phase modulation of femtosecond laser beams. Ablation width (1–15 μm) and depth (15–110 μm) resolution were dependent upon the selection of pulse energy and microscope objective. Because phase modulation shapes light in a maskless fashion, desired templates were digitally created and physically transferred to electrospun mats within a matter of minutes. Several microarchitectures were formed in parallel by dividing pulse energy between multiple foci, substantially increasing throughput. The data presented herein demonstrates that phase-based laser ablation can be used to rapidly shape and tailor electrospun mats in three dimensions.”

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Publication: Materials Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Materials Letters, Volume 66, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 360–363

Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions

December, 2011

Author(s): Christina Schwarz, Pedro M. Prieto, Enrique J. Fernández, and Pablo Artal


“We present a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup. A single reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator working in pure phase modulation generates the phase profiles for both pupils simultaneously. In addition, another liquid crystal spatial light modulator working in transmission operates in pure intensity modulation to produce a large variety of pupil masks for each eye. Subjects perform visual tasks through any predefined variations of the complex pupil function for both eyes. As an example of the system efficiency, we recorded images of the stimuli through the system as they were projected at the subject’s retina. This instrument proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes, as well as for further research of binocular vision.”

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Publication: Optics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 24, pp. 4779-4781 (2011)

Coaxial holographic encoding based on pure phase modulation

September, 2011

Author(s): Wei Jia, Zhongyu Chen, Fung Jacky Wen, Changhe Zhou, Yuk Tak Chow, and Po Sheun Chung


“We describe a simple technique for coaxial holographic image recording and reconstruction, employing a spatial light modulator (SLM) modified in pure phase mode. In the image encoding system, both the reference beam in the outside part and the signal beam in the inside part are displayed by an SLM based on the twisted nematic LCD. For a binary image, the part with amplitude of “1” is modulated with random phase, while the part with amplitude of “0” is modulated with constant phase. After blocking the dc component of the spatial frequencies, a Fourier transform (FT) hologram is recorded with a uniform intensity distribution. The amplitude image is reconstructed by illuminating the reference beam onto the hologram, which is much simpler than existing phase modulated FT holography techniques. The technique of coaxial holographic image encoding and recovering with pure phase modulation is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. As the holograms are recorded without the high-intensity dc component, the storage density with volume medium may be increased with the increase of dynamic range. Such a simple modulation method will have potential applications in areas such as holographic encryption and high-density disk storage systems.”

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Publication: Applied Optics, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 34, pp. H10-H15 (2011)

Quantum control of electron spins in the two-dimensional electron gas of a CdTe quantum well with a pair of Raman-resonant phase-locked laser pulses

August, 2011

Author(s): Timothy M. Sweeney, Carey Phelps, and Hailin Wang


“We demonstrated optical spin control of a two-dimensional electron gas in a modulation-doped CdTe quantum well by driving a spin-flip Raman transition with a pair of phase-locked laser pulses. In contrast to single-pulse optical spin control, which features a fixed spin-rotation axis, manipulation of the initial relative phase of the pulse pair enables us to control the axis of the optical spin rotation. We show that the Raman pulse pair acts like an effective microwave field, mapping the relative optical phase onto the phase of the electron spin polarization and making possible ultrafast, all-optical, and full quantum control of the electron spins.”

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Publication: Physical Review B, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Phys. Rev. B, Volume 84, Issue 7, (2011)

Generation of Optical Vortices by Linear Phase Ramps

July, 2011

Author(s): Sunil Vyas


“Generation of optical vortices using linear phase ramps is experimentally demonstrated. When two regions of a wavefront have opposite phase gradients then along the line of phase discontinuity vortices can be generated. It is shown that vortices can evolve during propagation even with the unequal magnitude of tilt in the two regions of the wavefront. The number of vortices and their location depend upon the magnitude of tilt. vortex generation is experimentally realized by encoding phase mask on spatial light modulator and their presence is detected interferometrically. Numerical simulation has been performed to calculate the diffracted intensity distribution from the phase mask, and presence of vortices in the diffracted field is detected by computational techniques.”

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Publication: International Journal of Optics, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: International Journal of Optics, Volume 2012, Article ID 794259, 6 pages, (2012)

Mean focal length of an aberrated lens

June, 2011

Author(s): Cosmas Mafusire and Andrew Forbes


“We outline an approach for the calculation of the mean focal length of an aberrated lens and provide closed-form solutions that show that the focal length of the lens is dependent on the presence of defocus, x-astigmatism, and spherical aberration. The results are applicable to Gaussian beams in the presence of arbitrary-sized apertures. The theoretical results are confirmed experimentally, showing excellent agreement. As the final results are in algebraic form, the theory may readily be applied in the laboratory if the aberration coefficients of the lens are known.”

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Publication: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: JOSA A, Vol. 28, Issue 7, pp. 1403-1409 (2011)

Phase extraction in microscopy using tunable defocusing by means of a SLM

May, 2011

Author(s): Luis Camacho, Vicente Micó, Javier García, Zeev Zalevsky


“In many practical microscopy applications the use of phase information is crucial. In this contribution we propose a method for phase extraction in a microscopy system based on analysis of images with varying defocusing. The system has no mobile parts owing to the defocusing by means of a spatial light modulator. The base of the method is the captre of images in a microscope with varying tube lens focal lengths. This produce a set of intensity images, all of them related, because the can be generated by free space propagation of a complex distribution which is unknown.”

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Publication: SPIE Proceedings, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Proc. SPIE 8082, 80820O (2011);

Far field subwavelength focusing using optical eigenmodes

May, 2011

Author(s): Jörg Baumgartl, Sebastian Kosmeier, Michael Mazilu, Edward T. F. Rogers, Nikolay I. Zheludev, and Kishan Dholakia.


“We report the focusing of light to generate a subdiffractive, subwavelength focal spot of full width half maximum 222 nm at an operating wavelength of 633 nm using an optical eigenmode approach. Crucially, the spot is created in the focal plane of a microscope objective thus yielding a practical working distance for applications. The optical eigenmode approach is implemented using an optimal superposition of Bessel beams on a spatial light modulator. The effects of partial coherence are also discussed. This far field method is a key advance toward the generation of subdiffractive optical features for imaging and lithographic purposes.”

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Publication: Applied Physics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 181109 (2011)

A high speed wavefront determination method based on spatial frequency modulations for focusing light through random scattering media

February, 2011

Author(s): Meng Cui


“A large number of degrees of freedom are required to produce a high quality focus through random scattering media. Previous demonstrations based on spatial phase modulations suffer from either a slow speed or a small number of degrees of freedom. In this work, a high speed wavefront determination technique based on spatial frequency domain wavefront modulations is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which is capable of providing both a high operation speed and a large number of degrees of freedom. The technique was employed to focus light through a strongly scattering medium and the entire wavefront was determined in 400 milliseconds, ~three orders of magnitude faster than the previous report.”

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Publication: Optics Express, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 2989-2995 (2011)

Tunable complex photonic chiral lattices by reconfigurable optical phase engineering

January, 2011

Author(s): Jolly Xavier and Joby Joseph


“We present a novel single-step fabrication approach, based on optical phase engineering, for tunable complex photonic chiral lattices of diverse geometries in a large area. By means of engineered reconfigurable phase patterns, we computationally simulate as well as experimentally investigate these complex structures. We show the generation of both periodic right- and left-handed chiral structures as well as photonic transversely quasi-crystallographic chiral structures. These complex chiral lattices are also demonstrated in a photorefractive material, and the lattice formation is analyzed by plane-wave-guided imaging as well as diffraction pattern imaging. Furthermore, complex photonic chiral structures with engineered tunable relative phase shifts between adjacent spiral units realizable in a single step are explored and analyzed.”

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Publication: Optics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 3, pp. 403-405 (2011)