Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding

May, 2012

Author(s): Mehul Malik, Malcolm O’Sullivan, Brandon Rodenburg, Mohammad Mirhosseini, Jonathan Leach, Martin P. J. Lavery, Miles J. Padgett, and Robert W. Boyd

Abstract:

“We describe an experimental implementation of a free-space 11-dimensional communication system using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. This system has a maximum measured OAM channel capacity of 2.12 bits/photon. The effects of Kolmogorov thin-phase turbulence on the OAM channel capacity are quantified. We find that increasing the turbulence leads to a degradation of the channel capacity. We are able to mitigate the effects of turbulence by increasing the spacing between detected OAM modes. This study has implications for high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. We describe the sort of QKD system that could be built using our current technology.”

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Publication: Optics Express, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 13195-13200 (2012)
doi:10.1364/OE.20.013195


Parallel phase-shifting digital holography with adaptive function using phase-mode spatial light modulator

May, 2012

Author(s): Miao Lin, Kouichi Nitta, Osamu Matoba, and Yasuhiro Awatsuji

Abstract:

“Parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a phase-mode spatial light modulator (SLM) is proposed. The phase-mode SLM implements spatial distribution of phase retardation required in the parallel phase-shifting digital holography. This SLM can also compensate dynamically the phase distortion caused by optical elements such as beam splitters, lenses, and air fluctuation. Experimental demonstration using a static object is presented.”

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Publication: Applied Optics, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 14, pp. 2633-2637 (2012)
doi:10.1364/AO.51.002633


Double peacock eye optical element for extended focal depth imaging with ophthalmic applications

April, 2012

Author(s): Lenny A. Romero, María S. Millán, Zbigniew Jaroszewicz, Andrzej Kolodziejczyk.

Abstract:

“The aged human eye is commonly affected by presbyopia, and therefore, it gradually loses its capability to form images of objects placed at different distances. Extended depth of focus (EDOF) imaging elements can overcome this inability, despite the introduction of a certain amount of aberration. This paper evaluates the EDOF imaging performance of the so-called peacock eye phase diffractive element, which focuses an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis and explores the element’s potential use for ophthalmic presbyopia compensation optics. Two designs of the element are analyzed: the single peacock eye, which produces one focal segment along the axis, and the double peacock eye, which is a spatially multiplexed element that produces two focal segments with partial overlapping along the axis. The performances of the peacock eye elements are compared with those of multifocal lenses through numerical simulations as well as optical experiments in the image space. The results demonstrate that the peacock eye elements form sharper images along the focal segment than the multifocal lenses and, therefore, are more suitable for presbyopia compensation. The extreme points of the depth of field in the object space, which represent the remote and the near object points, have been experimentally obtained for both the single and the double peacock eye optical elements. The double peacock eye element has better imaging quality for relatively short and intermediate distances than the single peacock eye, whereas the latter seems better for far distance vision.”

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Publication: Journal of Biomedical Optics , (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 046013 (Apr 27, 2012)
doi:10.1117/1.JBO.17.4.046013


Light-induced spiral mass transport in azo-polymer films under vortex-beam illumination

March, 2012

Author(s): Antonio Ambrosio, Lorenzo Marrucci, Fabio Borbone, Antonio Roviello, Pasqualino Maddalena

Abstract:

“When an azobenzene-containing polymer film is exposed to a non-uniform illumination, a light-induced mass migration process may be induced, leading to the formation of relief patterns on the polymer free surface. Despite a research effort of many years and several proposed models many aspects of this phenomenon remain not well understood. Here we report the appearance of spiral-shaped relief patterns on the polymer under the illumination of focused Laguerre-Gauss beams, having helical wavefront and an optical vortex at their axis. The induced spiral reliefs are sensitive to the vortex topological charge and to the wavefront handedness. These findings are unexpected, because the “doughnut”-shaped intensity profile of Laguerre- Gauss beams contains no information about the wavefront handedness. We propose a model that explains the main features of this phenomenon from the surface-mediated interference of the longitudinal and the transverse components of the optical field. These results may find applications in optical micro- and nanolithography and optical-field. ”

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Publication: eprint arXiv:1203.5205, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: eprint arXiv:1203.5205 (2012)
Bibliographic Code: 2012arXiv1203.5205A


Three dimensional optical twisters-driven helically stacked multi-layered microrotors

March, 2012

Author(s): Jolly Xavier, Raktim Dasgupta, Sunita Ahlawat, Joby Joseph, and Pradeep Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

“We demonstrate tunable helically stacked multi-layered microrotors realized in vortex-embedded three dimensional (3D) optical twister patterns. Intensity-tunable annular irradiance profiles with higher order vortex are generated as well as simultaneously unfolded by phase-engineered multiple plane wave interference. In the individually tunable 3D helical bright arms of these unfolded vortex structures, 2 μm silica beads are optically trapped as spiraling multilayered handles of multi-armed microrotors. Further, multiple rows of such microrotors are parallelly actuated with controllable sense of rotation. We also present our observation on helical 3D stacking of micro-particles in these longitudinally gyrating multi-armed rotor traps.”

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Publication: Applied Physics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Applied Physics Letters, Volume 100, Issue 12, (2012)
doi:10.1063/1.3693413


Experimental generation and characterization of Devil’s vortex-lenses

February, 2012

Author(s): A. Calatayud, J. A. Rodrigo, L. Remón, W. D. Furlan, G. Cristóbal und J. A. Monsoriu

Abstract:

“We propose the first experimental approach for both generation and characterization of high quality Devil’s vortex-lenses. These new type of lenses, able to produce a sequence of optical vortices, are addressed onto a programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) operating in phase-only modulation. The static aberrations arising by the lack of flatness of the SLM display are characterized and mostly compensated by using a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. The analysis of the residual aberrations and their effect on the vortex-lens performance are studied. ”

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Publication: Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Applied Physics B, Volume 106, Number 4 (2012), 915-919,
doi:10.1007/s00340-012-4913-0


Vertical differential interference contrast

February, 2012

Author(s): Michael Warber, Tobias Haist, Malte Hasler, and Wolfgang Osten

Abstract:

“We propose a new phase contrast filtering technique based on a combination of a focused and a defocused point-spread-function. This way, an axial shear is introduced in the imaging system. Compared to conventional differential interference contrast, an isotropic behavior is achieved. The lateral resolution is improved compared to conventional defocusing. Furthermore, the digital combination of multiple images leads to strongly enhanced visualization of small structures. We show simulated results as well as experimental results using a spatial-light modulator-based microscope.”

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Publication: Optical Engineering, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Opt. Eng., Volume 51, Issue 1, 013204, (2012)
doi:10.1117/1.OE.51.1.013204


Scattered light fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions

January, 2012

Author(s): Giulia Ghielmetti and Christof M. Aegerter

Abstract:

“Recently, we have proposed a method to image fluorescent structures behind turbid layers at diffraction limited resolution using wave-front shaping and the memory effect. However, this was limited to a raster scanning of the wave-front shaped focus to a two dimensional plane. In applications, it can however be of great importance to be able to scan a three dimensional volume. Here we show that this can be implemented in the same setup. This is achieved by the addition of a parabolic phase shift to the shaped wave-front. Via the memory effect, this phase shift leads to a shift of the interference based focus in the z-direction, thus opening the possibility of three dimensional imaging using scattered light fluorescence microscopy. Here, we show an example of such a three dimensional image of fluorescent nano-beads taken behind a turbid layer more than 10 mean free paths thick. Finally, we discuss the differences of the scanning in the z-direction with that in the x–y plane and the corresponding possibilities and limitations of the technique.”

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Publication: Optics Express, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 3744-3752 (2012)
doi:10.1364/OE.20.003744


Pure two-dimensional polarization patterns for holographic recording

January, 2012

Author(s): Ulises Ruiz, Clementina Provenzano, Pasquale Pagliusi, and Gabriella Cipparrone

Abstract:

“Two-dimensional (2D) polarization patterns are achieved by the interference of two pairs of beams with perpendicular planes of incidence and orthogonal polarizations (i.e. linear or circular). In both cases, imposing a phase shift of π/2 between consecutive beams contains the amplitude modulation of the optical field in the superposition region and, thus, pure 2D polarization patterns are created. The recording of these interference fields in a polarization-sensitive material, namely an amorphous azopolymer, creates reconfigurable 2D periodic microstructures with peculiar diffraction properties.”

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Publication: Optics Letters, (subscription required)

Issue/Year/DOI: Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 3, pp. 311-313 (2012)
doi:10.1364/OL.37.000311


Photo-designed terahertz devices

October, 2011

Author(s): Takanori Okada & Koichiro Tanaka

Abstract:

“Technologies are being developed to manipulate electromagnetic waves using artificially structured materials such as photonic crystals and metamaterials, with the goal of creating primary optical devices. For example, artificial metallic periodic structures show potential for the construction of devices operating in the terahertz frequency regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of photo-designed terahertz devices that enable the real-time, wide-range frequency modulation of terahertz electromagnetic waves. These devices are comprised of a photo-induced, planar periodic-conductive structure formed by the irradiation of a silicon surface using a spatially modulated, femtosecond optical pulsed laser. We also show that the modulation frequency can be tuned by the structural periodicity, but is hardly affected by the excitation power of the optical pump pulse. We expect that our findings will pave the way for the construction of all-optical compact operating devices, such as optical integrated circuits, thereby eliminating the need for materials fabrication processes.”

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Publication: Scientific Reports, (free download)

Issue/Year/DOI: Scientific Reports, Volume 1, Article number:121, (2011)
doi:10.1038/srep00121